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      International Journal of Nanomedicine (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the application of nanotechnology in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug delivery systems throughout the biomedical field. Sign up for email alerts here.

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      Natural Products-Based Nanoformulations: A New Approach Targeting CSCs to Cancer Therapy

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          Abstract

          Cancer stem cells (CSCs) lead to the occurrence and progression of cancer due to their strong tumorigenic, self-renewal, and multidirectional differentiation abilities. Existing cancer treatment methods cannot effectively kill or inhibit CSCs but instead enrich them and produce stronger proliferation, invasion, and metastasis capabilities, resulting in cancer recurrence and treatment resistance, which has become a difficult problem in clinical treatment. Therefore, targeting CSCs may be the most promising approach for comprehensive cancer therapy in the future. A variety of natural products (NP) have significant antitumor effects and have been identified to target and inhibit CSCs. However, pharmacokinetic defects and off-target effects have greatly hindered their clinical translation. NP-based nanoformulations (NPNs) have tremendous potential to overcome the disadvantages of NP against CSCs through site-specific delivery and by improving their pharmacokinetic parameters. In this review, we summarize the recent progress of NPNs targeting CSCs in cancer therapy, looking forward to transforming preclinical research results into clinical applications and bringing new prospects for cancer treatment.

          Most cited references204

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          Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries

          This article provides an update on the global cancer burden using the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates of cancer incidence and mortality produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Worldwide, an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases (18.1 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) and almost 10.0 million cancer deaths (9.9 million excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer) occurred in 2020. Female breast cancer has surpassed lung cancer as the most commonly diagnosed cancer, with an estimated 2.3 million new cases (11.7%), followed by lung (11.4%), colorectal (10.0 %), prostate (7.3%), and stomach (5.6%) cancers. Lung cancer remained the leading cause of cancer death, with an estimated 1.8 million deaths (18%), followed by colorectal (9.4%), liver (8.3%), stomach (7.7%), and female breast (6.9%) cancers. Overall incidence was from 2-fold to 3-fold higher in transitioned versus transitioning countries for both sexes, whereas mortality varied <2-fold for men and little for women. Death rates for female breast and cervical cancers, however, were considerably higher in transitioning versus transitioned countries (15.0 vs 12.8 per 100,000 and 12.4 vs 5.2 per 100,000, respectively). The global cancer burden is expected to be 28.4 million cases in 2040, a 47% rise from 2020, with a larger increase in transitioning (64% to 95%) versus transitioned (32% to 56%) countries due to demographic changes, although this may be further exacerbated by increasing risk factors associated with globalization and a growing economy. Efforts to build a sustainable infrastructure for the dissemination of cancer prevention measures and provision of cancer care in transitioning countries is critical for global cancer control.
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            Cancer statistics, 2022

            Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in the United States and compiles the most recent data on population-based cancer occurrence and outcomes. Incidence data (through 2018) were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data (through 2019) were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2022, 1,918,030 new cancer cases and 609,360 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States, including approximately 350 deaths per day from lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Incidence during 2014 through 2018 continued a slow increase for female breast cancer (by 0.5% annually) and remained stable for prostate cancer, despite a 4% to 6% annual increase for advanced disease since 2011. Consequently, the proportion of prostate cancer diagnosed at a distant stage increased from 3.9% to 8.2% over the past decade. In contrast, lung cancer incidence continued to decline steeply for advanced disease while rates for localized-stage increased suddenly by 4.5% annually, contributing to gains both in the proportion of localized-stage diagnoses (from 17% in 2004 to 28% in 2018) and 3-year relative survival (from 21% to 31%). Mortality patterns reflect incidence trends, with declines accelerating for lung cancer, slowing for breast cancer, and stabilizing for prostate cancer. In summary, progress has stagnated for breast and prostate cancers but strengthened for lung cancer, coinciding with changes in medical practice related to cancer screening and/or treatment. More targeted cancer control interventions and investment in improved early detection and treatment would facilitate reductions in cancer mortality.
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              Natural products in drug discovery: advances and opportunities

              Natural products and their structural analogues have historically made a major contribution to pharmacotherapy, especially for cancer and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, natural products also present challenges for drug discovery, such as technical barriers to screening, isolation, characterization and optimization, which contributed to a decline in their pursuit by the pharmaceutical industry from the 1990s onwards. In recent years, several technological and scientific developments — including improved analytical tools, genome mining and engineering strategies, and microbial culturing advances — are addressing such challenges and opening up new opportunities. Consequently, interest in natural products as drug leads is being revitalized, particularly for tackling antimicrobial resistance. Here, we summarize recent technological developments that are enabling natural product-based drug discovery, highlight selected applications and discuss key opportunities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                ijn
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                14 September 2022
                2022
                : 17
                : 4163-4193
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]College of Medical Technology, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bishan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chongqing, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]TCM Regulating Metabolic Diseases Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jianyuan Tang; Zhilei Wang, Email tangjy@cdutcm.edu.cn; wangzl1993@outlook.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0306-3109
                Article
                380697
                10.2147/IJN.S380697
                9482958
                3f05e49e-888a-4f16-afa4-4a4c7cc4d520
                © 2022 Liao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 07 July 2022
                : 25 August 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 10, References: 204, Pages: 31
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine
                cancer,cancer stem cells,nanoformulations,natural products,targeted therapy
                Molecular medicine
                cancer, cancer stem cells, nanoformulations, natural products, targeted therapy

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