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      Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote Sensing Images Using Multifractal Analysis

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          Abstract

          Satellite remote sensing (RS) is an important contributor to Earth observation, providing various kinds of imagery every day, but low spatial resolution remains a critical bottleneck in a lot of applications, restricting higher spatial resolution analysis (e.g., intra-urban). In this study, a multifractal-based super-resolution reconstruction method is proposed to alleviate this problem. The multifractal characteristic is common in Nature. The self-similarity or self-affinity presented in the image is useful to estimate details at larger and smaller scales than the original. We first look for the presence of multifractal characteristics in the images. Then we estimate parameters of the information transfer function and noise of the low resolution image. Finally, a noise-free, spatial resolution-enhanced image is generated by a fractal coding-based denoising and downscaling method. The empirical case shows that the reconstructed super-resolution image performs well in detail enhancement. This method is not only useful for remote sensing in investigating Earth, but also for other images with multifractal characteristics.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview

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            Fractal-based description of natural scenes.

            This paper addresses the problems of 1) representing natural shapes such as mountains, trees, and clouds, and 2) computing their description from image data. To solve these problems, we must be able to relate natural surfaces to their images; this requires a good model of natural surface shapes. Fractal functions are a good choice for modeling 3-D natural surfaces because 1) many physical processes produce a fractal surface shape, 2) fractals are widely used as a graphics tool for generating natural-looking shapes, and 3) a survey of natural imagery has shown that the 3-D fractal surface model, transformed by the image formation process, furnishes an accurate description of both textured and shaded image regions. The 3-D fractal model provides a characterization of 3-D surfaces and their images for which the appropriateness of the model is verifiable. Furthermore, this characterization is stable over transformations of scale and linear transforms of intensity. The 3-D fractal model has been successfully applied to the problems of 1) texture segmentation and classification, 2) estimation of 3-D shape information, and 3) distinguishing between perceptually ``smooth'' and perceptually ``textured'' surfaces in the scene.
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              Restoration of a single superresolution image from several blurred, noisy, and undersampled measured images.

               M Elad,  A Feuer (1997)
              The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sensors (Basel)
                Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1424-8220
                2009
                29 October 2009
                : 9
                : 11
                : 8669-8683
                Affiliations
                Institute of Geographic Sciences & Nature Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; E-Mails: humg@ 123456lreis.ac.cn (M.H.); gey@ 123456lreis.ac.cn (Y.G.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: wangjf@ 123456lreis.ac.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-6488-8965; Fax: +86-10-6488-9630.
                Article
                sensors-09-08669
                10.3390/s91108669
                3260607
                22291530
                © 2009 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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