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      Bisphenol A, Tobacco Smoke, and Age as Predictors of Oxidative Stress in Children and Adolescents

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          Abstract

          Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate bisphenol A (BPA) and its role in the induction of oxidative stress and confirm the same for tobacco smoke. Methods. A total of 223 young, healthy students (7–19 years old) were recruited in Chivasso, Italy. A spot of urine of each subject was analyzed to quantify BPA, cotinine, and 15F2t-isoprostane. Results. BPA showed a slight increase of concentration proportional with increasing age, even though the 11–14 years age group had slightly lower results, inducing a V-shape. The same trend was observed for 15F2t-isoprostane and cotinine. The result of piecewise linear robust regression shows a break point of the effect of BPA on 15F2t-isoprostane at 6 ng/mg CREA ( p < 0.001). At higher levels, 15F2t-isoprostane shows an exponential increase by more than threefold for each one-log unit of BPA. An increase of oxidative stress due to BPA was observed, but only from 6 ng/mg of CREA up. Passive tobacco smoke is also able to induce an increase in oxidative stress. Conclusion. Prevention against BPA and passive tobacco smoke represents an important tool for promoting the highest health standard.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Exposure of the U.S. Population to Bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-Octylphenol: 2003–2004

          Background Bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tertiary-octylphenol (tOP) are industrial chemicals used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins (BPA) and nonionic surfactants (tOP). These products are in widespread use in the United States. Objectives We aimed to assess exposure to BPA and tOP in the U.S. general population. Methods We measured the total (free plus conjugated) urinary concentrations of BPA and tOP in 2,517 participants ≥ 6 years of age in the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using automated solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results BPA and tOP were detected in 92.6% and 57.4% of the persons, respectively. Least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of BPA were significantly lower in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic blacks (p = 0.006) and non-Hispanic whites (p = 0.007); LSGM concentrations for non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites were not statistically different (p = 0.21). Females had statistically higher BPA LSGM concentrations than males (p = 0.043). Children had higher concentrations than adolescents (p $45,000/year). Conclusions Urine concentrations of total BPA differed by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and household income. These first U.S. population representative concentration data for urinary BPA and tOP should help guide public health research priorities, including studies of exposure pathways, potential health effects, and risk assessment.
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            In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies.

            Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10-1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.
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              Measurement of F(2)-isoprostanes as an index of oxidative stress in vivo.

              In 1990 we discovered the formation of prostaglandin F(2)-like compounds, F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs), in vivo by nonenzymatic free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. F(2)-IsoPs are initially formed esterified to phospholipids and then released in free form. There are several favorable attributes that make measurement of F(2)-IsoPs attractive as a reliable indicator of oxidative stress in vivo: (i) F(2)-IsoPs are specific products of lipid peroxidation; (ii) they are stable compounds; (iii) levels are present in detectable quantities in all normal biological fluids and tissues, allowing the definition of a normal range; (iv) their formation increases dramatically in vivo in a number of animal models of oxidant injury; (v) their formation is modulated by antioxidant status; and (vi) their levels are not effected by lipid content of the diet. Measurement of F(2)-IsoPs in plasma can be utilized to assess total endogenous production of F(2)-IsoPs whereas measurement of levels esterified in phospholipids can be used to determine the extent of lipid peroxidation in target sites of interest. Recently, we developed an assay for a urinary metabolite of F(2)-IsoPs, which should provide a valuable noninvasive integrated approach to assess total endogenous production of F(2)-IsoPs in large clinical studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                06 June 2019
                June 2019
                : 16
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, University of Turin, 10126 Turin, Italy; valeria.bellisario@ 123456unito.it (V.B.); roberta.tassinari@ 123456unito.it (R.T.); giulia.squillacioti@ 123456unito.it (G.S.); tilde.manetta@ 123456unito.it (T.M.)
                [2 ]Consultant of OMP (observatory of professional diseases) of the Turin Court Prosecutor’s Office, Turin 10100, Italy; maxbugiani@ 123456fastwebnet.it
                [3 ]Cancer Epidemiology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin 10126, Italy; enrica.migliore@ 123456unito.it
                [4 ]Unit of Pneumology and Tisiology, National Health Service (ASL TO2), Torino 10100, Italy; papiccioni@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: roberto.bono@ 123456unito.it
                Article
                ijerph-16-02025
                10.3390/ijerph16112025
                6604009
                31174388
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Public health

                adolescents, oxidative stress, passive tobacco smoke, bpa, public health

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