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      Heating and Lighting Load Disaggregation Using Frequency Components and Convolutional Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Method

      , , , ,
      Energies
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Load disaggregation for the identification of specific load types in the total demands (e.g., demand-manageable loads, such as heating or cooling loads) is becoming increasingly important for the operation of existing and future power supply systems. This paper introduces an approach in which periodical changes in the total demands (e.g., daily, weekly, and seasonal variations) are disaggregated into corresponding frequency components and correlated with the same frequency components in the meteorological variables (e.g., temperature and solar irradiance), allowing to select combinations of frequency components with the strongest correlations as the additional explanatory variables. The paper first presents a novel Fourier series regression method for obtaining target frequency components, which is illustrated on two household-level datasets and one substation-level dataset. These results show that correlations between selected disaggregated frequency components are stronger than the correlations between the original non-disaggregated data. Afterwards, convolutional neural network (CNN) and bidirectional long short-term memory (BiLSTM) methods are used to represent dependencies among multiple dimensions and to output the estimated disaggregated time series of specific types of loads, where Bayesian optimisation is applied to select hyperparameters of CNN-BiLSTM model. The CNN-BiLSTM and other deep learning models are reported to have excellent performance in many regression problems, but they are often applied as “black box” models without further exploration or analysis of the modelled processes. Therefore, the paper compares CNN-BiLSTM model in which correlated frequency components are used as the additional explanatory variables with a naïve CNN-BiLSTM model (without frequency components). The presented case studies, related to the identification of electrical heating load and lighting load from the total demands, show that the accuracy of disaggregation improves after specific frequency components of the total demand are correlated with the corresponding frequency components of temperature and solar irradiance, i.e., that frequency component-based CNN-BiLSTM model provides a more accurate load disaggregation. Obtained results are also compared/benchmarked against the two other commonly used models, confirming the benefits of the presented load disaggregation methodology.

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          Long Short-Term Memory

          Learning to store information over extended time intervals by recurrent backpropagation takes a very long time, mostly because of insufficient, decaying error backflow. We briefly review Hochreiter's (1991) analysis of this problem, then address it by introducing a novel, efficient, gradient-based method called long short-term memory (LSTM). Truncating the gradient where this does not do harm, LSTM can learn to bridge minimal time lags in excess of 1000 discrete-time steps by enforcing constant error flow through constant error carousels within special units. Multiplicative gate units learn to open and close access to the constant error flow. LSTM is local in space and time; its computational complexity per time step and weight is O(1). Our experiments with artificial data involve local, distributed, real-valued, and noisy pattern representations. In comparisons with real-time recurrent learning, back propagation through time, recurrent cascade correlation, Elman nets, and neural sequence chunking, LSTM leads to many more successful runs, and learns much faster. LSTM also solves complex, artificial long-time-lag tasks that have never been solved by previous recurrent network algorithms.
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            The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2)

            The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) is the latest atmospheric reanalysis of the modern satellite era produced by NASA’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). MERRA-2 assimilates observation types not available to its predecessor, MERRA, and includes updates to the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) model and analysis scheme so as to provide a viable ongoing climate analysis beyond MERRA’s terminus. While addressing known limitations of MERRA, MERRA-2 is also intended to be a development milestone for a future integrated Earth system analysis (IESA) currently under development at GMAO. This paper provides an overview of the MERRA-2 system and various performance metrics. Among the advances in MERRA-2 relevant to IESA are the assimilation of aerosol observations, several improvements to the representation of the stratosphere including ozone, and improved representations of cryospheric processes. Other improvements in the quality of MERRA-2 compared with MERRA include the reduction of some spurious trends and jumps related to changes in the observing system, and reduced biases and imbalances in aspects of the water cycle. Remaining deficiencies are also identified. Production of MERRA-2 began in June 2014 in four processing streams, and converged to a single near-real time stream in mid 2015. MERRA-2 products are accessible online through the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC).
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              Bidirectional recurrent neural networks

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ENERGA
                Energies
                Energies
                MDPI AG
                1996-1073
                August 2021
                August 08 2021
                : 14
                : 16
                : 4831
                Article
                10.3390/en14164831
                3f108b0f-33ab-4bac-a657-367a35c99c7c
                © 2021

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Self URI (article page): https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/16/4831

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