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      The role of specific IgG and complement in combating aprimary mucosal infection of the gut epithelium

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          Abstract

          The role of complement and complement-fixing IgG isotypes at mucosal surfaces is ill defined. Previous data have demonstrated that survival of an infection with the attaching and effacing pathogen Citrobacter rodentium requires production of systemic and CD4+ T cell-dependent IgG. We have found that both complement and complement-fixing IgG isotypes are needed to survive a C. rodentium infection. Our results indicate that both IgG and complement C3b enter the gut lumen and bind epithelially adherent, and fecally shed C. rodentium. Furthermore, C3-deficient mice demonstrate a profound survival defect, though means to replenish C3 in systemic or mucosal sites restores the protective capacity of complement in the host. Our data provide evidence that both IgG and complement interact constructively on both sides of the epithelium to fight colonizing mucosal infections.

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          Most cited references 37

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          CD4(+) lymphoid tissue-inducer cells promote innate immunity in the gut.

          Fetal CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells play a critical role in the development of lymphoid tissues. Recent studies identified that LTi cells persist in adults and are related to a heterogeneous population of innate lymphoid cells that have been implicated in inflammatory responses. However, whether LTi cells contribute to protective immunity remains poorly defined. We demonstrate that after infection with Citrobacter rodentium, CD4(+) LTi cells were a dominant source of interleukin-22 (IL-22) early during infection. Infection-induced CD4(+) LTi cell responses were IL-23 dependent, and ablation of IL-23 impaired innate immunity. Further, depletion of CD4(+) LTi cells abrogated infection-induced expression of IL-22 and antimicrobial peptides, resulting in exacerbated host mortality. LTi cells were also found to be essential for host protective immunity in lymphocyte-replete hosts. Collectively these data demonstrate that adult CD4(+) LTi cells are a critical source of IL-22 and identify a previously unrecognized function for CD4(+) LTi cells in promoting innate immunity in the intestine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Proinflammatory cytokines disrupt epithelial barrier function by apoptosis-independent mechanisms.

            It is well known that inflammatory conditions of the intestinal mucosa result in compromised barrier function. Inflammation is characterized by an influx into the mucosa of immune cells that influence epithelial function by releasing proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Mucosal barrier function is regulated by the epithelial apical junctional complex (AJC) consisting of the tight junction and the adherens junction. Since the AJC regulates barrier function, we analyzed the influence of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha on its structure/function and determined the contribution of apoptosis to this process using a model intestinal epithelial cell line, T84, and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. AJC structure/function was analyzed by confocal microscopy, biochemical analysis, and physiologic measurement of epithelial gate/fence function. Apoptosis was monitored by determining cytokeratin 18 cleavage and caspase-3 activation. IFN-gamma induced time-dependent disruptions in epithelial gate function that were potentiated by coincubation with TNF-alpha. Tight junction fence function was somewhat disrupted. Cytokine treatment was associated with internalization of AJC transmembrane proteins, junction adhesion molecule 1, occludin, and claudin-1/4 with minimal effects on the cytoplasmic plaque protein zonula occludens 1. Detergent solubility profiles of junction adhesion molecule 1 and E-cadherin and their affiliation with "raft-like" membrane microdomains were modified by these cytokines. Inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis did not block induced permeability defects; further emphasizing their primary influence on the epithelial AJC structure and barrier function. Our findings for the first time clearly separate the proapoptotic effects of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha from their abilities to disrupt barrier function.
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              The MHC class I-like IgG receptor controls perinatal IgG transport, IgG homeostasis, and fate of IgG-Fc-coupled drugs.

              Abs of the IgG isotype are efficiently transported from mother to neonate and have an extended serum t(1/2) compared with Abs of other isotypes. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the MHC class I-related protein, the neonatal FcR (FcRn), is the FcR responsible for both in vivo functions. To understand the phenotypes imposed by FcRn, we produced and analyzed mice with a defective FcRn gene. The results provide direct evidence that perinatal IgG transport and protection of IgG from catabolism are mediated by FcRn, and that the latter function is key to IgG homeostasis, essential for generating a potent IgG response to foreign Ags, and the basis of enhanced efficacy of Fc-IgG-based therapeutics. FcRn is therefore a promising therapeutic target for enhancing protective humoral immunity, treating autoimmune disease, and improving drug efficacy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 December 2011
                : 1
                : 4
                : 311-318
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Pathology, Harvard University Medical School/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02115, USA , +31-317-483742, belzer@ 123456microbes.nl
                [ 2 ] Department of Pediatrics (Pathology), Immune Disease Institute Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
                [ 3 ] 422b-EBRC, Department of Pathology, Brigham & Women's Hospital, 221 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, 02114, USA
                [ 4 ] Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 10, 6703, HB Wageningen, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [* ] +1-617-732-763, +1-617-264-6898, lbry@ 123456partners.org
                Article
                7
                10.1556/EuJMI.1.2011.4.7
                3319158
                22485193

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