The subfamily Desmodontinae encompasses the only mammals known to feed exclusively on the blood of other vertebrates. This study provides records of the desmodontine bat Diphylla ecaudata from a major gap in its known distribution in northeastern Brazil. Specimens were captured at five localities, all associated with caves. Two of these sites are located in the state of Sergipe, two in Bahia, and one in Ceará. The record of D. ecaudata from Ceará is the first for this state.