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      Role of statins in preventing cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

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          Abstract

          Background

          The prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) by statins remains controversial. Therefore, the present meta-analysis including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to assess the effect of perioperative statin on CSA-AKI.

          Methods

          Two reviewers independently searched for RCTs about perioperative statin for prevention of CSA-AKI. The primary endpoint was CSA-AKI. Relative risk was calculated between statin and placebo for preventing CSA-AKI using the random-effect model or fixed-effect model according to different heterogeneity.

          Results

          Eight RCTs met inclusion criteria, including five studies with atorvastatin, two with rosuvastatin, and one with simvastatin. There were 1,603 patients receiving statin treatment and 1,601 with placebo. Perioperative statin therapy did not reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI (relative risk =1.17, 95% CI: 0.98–1.39, p=0.076). Furthermore, perioperative statin increased the risk of CSA-AKI in the subgroup analysis with clear definition of CSA-AKI and those with JADAD score >3. Perioperative rosuvastatin produced slightly significantly higher risk of AKI than atorvastatin therapy ( p=0.070). Statin intervention both pre and post surgery slightly increased the risk of CSA-AKI versus preoperative statin therapy alone ( p=0.040).

          Conclusions

          Perioperative statin therapy might increase the risk of CSA-AKI after cardiac surgery.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Acute kidney injury, mortality, length of stay, and costs in hospitalized patients.

          The marginal effects of acute kidney injury on in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs have not been well described. A consecutive sample of 19,982 adults who were admitted to an urban academic medical center, including 9210 who had two or more serum creatinine (SCr) determinations, was evaluated. The presence and degree of acute kidney injury were assessed using absolute and relative increases from baseline to peak SCr concentration during hospitalization. Large increases in SCr concentration were relatively rare (e.g., >or=2.0 mg/dl in 105 [1%] patients), whereas more modest increases in SCr were common (e.g., >or=0.5 mg/dl in 1237 [13%] patients). Modest changes in SCr were significantly associated with mortality, LOS, and costs, even after adjustment for age, gender, admission International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis, severity of illness (diagnosis-related group weight), and chronic kidney disease. For example, an increase in SCr >or=0.5 mg/dl was associated with a 6.5-fold (95% confidence interval 5.0 to 8.5) increase in the odds of death, a 3.5-d increase in LOS, and nearly 7500 dollars in excess hospital costs. Acute kidney injury is associated with significantly increased mortality, LOS, and costs across a broad spectrum of conditions. Moreover, outcomes are related directly to the severity of acute kidney injury, whether characterized by nominal or percentage changes in serum creatinine.
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            Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery: focus on modifiable risk factors.

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a major health issue. Lacking effective therapies, risk factor modification may offer a means of preventing this complication. The objective of the present study was to identify and determine the prognostic importance of such risk factors. Data from a multicenter cohort of 3500 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery at 7 hospitals during 2004 were analyzed (using multivariable logistic regression modeling) to determine the independent relationships between 3 thresholds of AKI (>25%, >50%, and >75% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate within 1 week of surgery or need for postoperative dialysis) with death rates, as well as to identify modifiable risk factors for AKI. The 3 thresholds of AKI occurred in 24% (n=829), 7% (n=228), and 3% (n=119) of the cohort, respectively. All 3 thresholds were independently associated with a >4-fold increase in the odds of death and could be predicted with several perioperative variables, including preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump use, urgent surgery, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass. In particular, 3 potentially modifiable variables were also independently and strongly associated with AKI. These were preoperative anemia, perioperative red blood cell transfusions, and surgical reexploration. AKI after cardiac surgery is highly prevalent and prognostically important. Therapies aimed at mitigating preoperative anemia, perioperative red blood cell transfusions, and surgical reexploration may offer protection against this complication.
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              Long-term risk of mortality and acute kidney injury during hospitalization after major surgery.

              To determine the relationship between long-term mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization after major surgery. AKI is associated with a risk of short-term mortality that is proportional to its severity; however the long-term survival of patients with AKI is poorly studied. This is a retrospective cohort study of 10,518 patients with no history of chronic kidney disease who were discharged after a major surgery between 1992 and 2002. AKI was defined by the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney) classification, which requires at least a 50% increase in serum creatinine (sCr) and stratifies patients into 3 severity stages: risk, injury, and failure. Patient survival was determined through the National Social Security Death Index. Long-term survival was analyzed using a risk-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model. In the risk-adjusted model, survival was worse among patients with AKI and was proportional to its severity with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.29) for the RIFLE-Risk class and 1.57 (95% CI, 1.40-1.75) for the RIFLE-Failure class, compared with patients without AKI (P < 0.001). Patients with complete renal recovery after AKI still had an increased adjusted hazard ratio for death of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31) compared with patients without AKI (P < 0.001). In a large single-center cohort of patients discharged after major surgery, AKI with even small changes in sCr level during hospitalization was associated with an independent long-term risk of death.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                05 March 2018
                : 14
                : 475-482
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Shenzhen Sun Yat-sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jian-xin Weng, Department of Cardiology, Shenzhen Sun Yat-sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Dongmen North Road 1021, Shenzhen 518112, China, Tel/fax +86 07 552 550 9566, Email szwenjianxin@ 123456126.com
                Article
                tcrm-14-475
                10.2147/TCRM.S160298
                5842775
                © 2018 He et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                meta-analysis, statin, cardiac surgery, acute kidney injury, perioperative

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