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      Distribution of the genus Boeckella (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Centropagidae) at high latitudes in South America and the main Antarctic biogeographic regions

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          Copepods are present in numerous aquatic environments, playing key roles in food webs, and are thought to be useful indicators of environmental change. Boeckella is a calanoid copepod genus distributed mainly in the Southern Hemisphere, with 14 species reported at higher southern latitudes in South America and Antarctica. We present an updated database of these 14 species of Boeckella generated from a combination of three sources: 1) new field sampling data, 2) published records, and 3) Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), to provide a comprehensive description of the geographic distribution of the genus south of latitude 40°S in southern South America and the three main terrestrial biogeographic regions of Antarctica. The database includes 380 records, 62 from field sampling, 278 from the literature and 40 from GBIF. Southern South America, including the Falkland/Malvinas Islands, had the highest species richness and number of records (14 and 297, respectively), followed by the sub-Antarctic islands (5 and 34), South Orkney Islands (2 and 14), South Shetland Islands (1 and 23), Antarctic Peninsula (1 and 10) and finally continental Antarctica (1 and 2). Boeckella poppei Mrázek, 1901 is the only representative of the genus, and more widely the only terrestrial/freshwater invertebrate, currently reported from all three main biogeographic regions in Antarctica (sub-Antarctic islands, maritime and continental Antarctic). Future development of molecular systematic studies in this group should contribute to assessing the correspondence between morphological taxonomy and molecular evolutionary radiation.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Biogeographic areas and transition zones of Latin America and the Caribbean islands based on panbiogeographic and cladistic analyses of the entomofauna.

           Juan Morrone (2005)
          Track and cladistic biogeographic analyses based on insect taxa are used as a framework to interpret patterns of the Latin American and Caribbean entomofauna by identifying biogeographic areas on the basis of endemicity and arranging them hierarchically in a system of regions, subregions, dominions, and provinces. The Nearctic region, inhabited by Holarctic insect taxa, comprises five provinces: California, Baja California, Sonora, Mexican Plateau, and Tamaulipas. The Mexican transition zone comprises five provinces: Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Transmexican Volcanic Belt, Balsas Basin, and Sierra Madre del Sur. The Neotropical region, which harbors many insect taxa with close relatives in the tropical areas of the Old World, comprises four subregions: Caribbean, Amazonian, Chacoan, and Parana. The South American transition zone comprises five provinces: North Andean Paramo, Coastal Peruvian Desert, Puna, Atacama, Prepuna, and Monte. The Andean region, which harbors insect taxa with close relatives in the Austral continents, comprises three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic, and Patagonian.
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            Panbiogeografía, componentes bióticos y zonas de transición

             Juan Morrone (2004)
            El reconocimiento de componentes bióticos resulta clave para comprender la evolución en espacio-tiempo. La panbiogeografía representa un enfoque biogeográfico que puede aplicarse para identificar estos componentes bióticos. Se proprorciona una revisión del enfoque panbiogeográfico, incluyendo definiciones de conceptos básicos (trazos individuales y generalizados, nodos, líneas de base y centros de masa) y métodos (manual, matrices de conectividad e incidencia, compatibilidad de trazos y análisis de parsimonia de endemismos). Como un ejemplo de este enfoque, se identifican 70 componentes bióticos de América Latina y el Caribe, se caracterizan brevemente, y se ordenan en un sistema biogeográfico de tres regiones, siete subregiones y dos zonas de transición. Se discute la relevancia del reconocimiento de componentes bióticos y zonas de transición.
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              Spatial and temporal variability across life's hierarchies in the terrestrial Antarctic

               S. Chown,  P Convey (2007)

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                10 June 2019
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                : 1-15
                [1 ] Laboratorio de Ecología Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile. Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad Santiago Chile
                [2 ] Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Las Palmeras 3425, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile Universidad de Chile Santiago Chile
                [3 ] Laboratorio de Ecosistemas Marinos Antárticos y Subantárticos, Universidad de Magallanes, casilla 113-D, Punta Arenas, Chile Universidad de Magallanes Punta Arenas Chile
                [4 ] ONG Costa Humboldt, Canónigo Madariaga 570, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile ONG Costa Humboldt Santiago Chile
                [5 ] British Antarctic Survey (BAS), Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council Cambridge United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Claudia S. Maturana ( cmaturana.ciencias@ )

                Academic editor: D. Defaye

                Claudia S. Maturana, Sebastián Rosenfeld, Javier Naretto, Peter Convey, Elie Poulin

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                South Atlantic Environment Research Institute, Chilean Antarctic Institute, Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, CONICYT-PIA, ICM and Fondecyt, NERC
                Data Paper
                Marine & Freshwater ecology
                Falkland Islands
                South America
                Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia


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