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      Widespread Delta-Like-1 Expression in Normal Adult Mouse Tissue and Injured Endothelium Is Reflected by Expression of the Dll1 LacZ Locus

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          Abstract

          Background: Our study characterizes Delta-like 1 (Dll1) in the adult mouse, particularly in normal versus injured vasculature, with the aid of the transgenic Dll1<sup>LacZ</sup> line. Methods: Normal mouse adult tissues or those from the Dll1<sup>LacZ</sup> reporter line were analyzed for Dll1 expression and promoter activity. Vascular tissue was analyzed before and after carotid artery ligation. Results: In wild-type mice, Dll1 transcript expression was widespread. Similarly, the Dll1<sup>LacZ</sup> reporter had β-galactosidase activity detectable in the cerebellum, cerebrum, spinal cord, liver, lung and cornea, although the normal adult vasculature had no reporter expression. Following arterial ligation, there was acute induction of Dll1<sup>LacZ</sup> reporter expression, both in the ligated left carotid artery, and the uninjured right contralateral artery. Expression returned to low/undetectable levels 4–10 days after arterial ligation. Conclusion: The expression of Dll1 in the adult mouse is more widespread than previously realized, although not in resting large arteries in the adult mouse. Following arterial injury, Dll1 promoter activity is induced selectively in the endothelial cells of both the injured artery and the contralateral uninjured artery. Our results show that while overall expression in the adult mouse is widespread, Dll1 may be selectively expressed in the endothelium of injured vasculature, similar to the endothelial-restricted expression of Dll4.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Notch3 is required for arterial identity and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells.

          Formation of a fully functional artery proceeds through a multistep process. Here we show that Notch3 is required to generate functional arteries in mice by regulating arterial differentiation and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMC). In adult Notch3-/- mice distal arteries exhibit structural defects and arterial myogenic responses are defective. The postnatal maturation stage of vSMC is deficient in Notch3-/- mice. We further show that Notch3 is required for arterial specification of vSMC but not of endothelial cells. Our data reveal Notch3 to be the first cell-autonomous regulator of arterial differentiation and maturation of vSMC.
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            Maintenance of somite borders in mice requires the Delta homologue DII1.

            During vertebrate embryonic development, the paraxial mesoderm is subdivided into metameric subunits called somites. The arrangement and cranio-caudal polarity of the somites governs the metamerism of all somite-derived tissues and spinal ganglia. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying somite formation, segment polarity, maintenance of segment borders, and the interdependency of these processes. The mouse Delta homologue Dll1, a member of the DSL gene family, is expressed in the presomitic mesoderm and posterior halves of somites. Here we report that, in Dll1-deficient mouse embryos, a primary metameric pattern is established in mesoderm, and cytodifferentiation is apparently normal, but the segments have no cranio-caudal polarity, and no epithelial somites form. Caudal sclerotome halves do not condense, and the pattern of spinal ganglia and nerves is perturbed, indicating loss of segment polarity. Myoblasts span segment borders, demonstrating that these borders are not maintained. These results show that Dll1 is involved in compartmentalization of somites, that dermomyotome and sclerotome differentiation are independent of formation of epithelia and subdivision of somites in cranial and caudal halves, and that compartmentalization is essential for the maintenance of segment borders in paraxial mesoderm-derived structures.
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              Improved reporter strain for monitoring Cre recombinase-mediated DNA excisions in mice.

               Y. Fujiwara,  S Orkin,  X Mao (1999)
              Effective use of conditional Cre recombinase-loxP gene modification requires Cre-expressing mouse strains with defined patterns of expression. To assess the in vivo functionality of Cre-expressing mice, we have engineered an improved reporter strain for monitoring Cre-mediated excisions. The beta-galactosidase-neomycin phosphotransferase fusion gene (betageo)-trapped ROSA26 locus was modified by gene targeting such that betageo is expressed only after Cre-mediated excision of loxP-flanked DNA sequences. betageo from the excised ROSA26 allele is expressed ubiquitously in embryos and adult mice. By mating the reporter strain with Cre-expressing transgenic mice, we have shown that the loxP-flanked ROSA26 allele is accessible to Cre during early embryogenesis, as well as in a specific hematopoietic lineage (T lymphocytes). This improved reporter strain should facilitate monitoring in vivo Cre-mediated excision events in a variety of experimental contexts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2008
                December 2007
                26 September 2007
                : 45
                : 1
                : 1-9
                Affiliations
                aCenter for Molecular Medicine, Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Scarborough, Me., and bDepartment of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Southern Maine, Portland, Me., USA
                Article
                109072 J Vasc Res 2008;45:1–9
                10.1159/000109072
                17898542
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 49, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Paper

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