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      Urinary Concentration Defect and Limited Expression of Sodium Cotransporter, rBSC1, in a Rat Model of Chronic Renal Failure


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          Background: Renal urinary concentration is associated with enhanced expression of sodium cotransporter (rBSC1) in thick ascending limb of Henle. Overexpression of rBSC1 was reported recently in hypertrophied nephrons after unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) and in kidney isografts. Since urinary concentration defect and hypertrophy of residual nephrons are major manifestations of chronic renal failure (CRF), we investigated the rBSC1 signals for RNA and protein in a rat model of CRF. Methods: Rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy and examined 8 weeks after operation. rBSC1 mRNA was examined by competitive PCR and in situ hybridization, and rBSC1 protein signals by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Rats that underwent sham-operation, UNX, or 5/6 nephrectomy followed by a 3-week recovery period (acute renal failure), were used as control. Water intake was restricted for 24 h in subgroups of control and CRF rats. Results: Microscopic examination showed hypertrophy of residual nephrons in both UNX and CRF rats. Signals for rBSC1 mRNA and protein were enhanced at basal condition only in rats with UNX. Under basal conditions, CRF rats demonstrated low urinary osmolality in spite of high plasma arginine vasopressin levels. Water restriction resulted in increased signals for rBSC1 mRNA and protein and concentration of urine in sham-operated rats, but such increases were absent and urinary concentration was incomplete in CRF rats. Conclusions: Compensatory overexpression and upregulation of rBSC1 expression in response to dehydration are both absent in CRF rats. These limitations are thought to be the underlying mechanisms of urinary concentrating defect seen in CRF.

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          Disorders of body fluids, sodium and potassium in chronic renal failure

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            Cardiac infarcts increase sodium transporter transcripts (rBSC1) in the thick ascending limb of Henle.

            Enhanced expression of the kidney-specific sodium transporter, rBSC1, in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL) and of the renal water channel, aquaporin-2 (AQP2), in collecting duct has been identified in rats with congestive heart failure (CHF) as a cause for enhanced sodium and water retention in this condition. However, the mechanism of impaired urinary sodium excretion observed even in rats with mild cardiac dysfunction remains unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with myocardial infarctions measuring 15 to 30% of the left ventricular circumference with no overt CHF were prepared. We measured the amount of rBSC1 or AQP2 mRNA using competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by inducing a point mutation at the middle of the PCR product for rBSC1 or by deleting 180 bp from the 760 bp PCR product for AQP2, respectively. The results were confirmed by in situ hybridization. rBSC1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis using a specific antibody against rBSC1. Although plasma renin activity was slightly elevated in rats with myocardial infarction (MI), no significant differences in lung weight or plasma concentrations for aldosterone and atrial natriuretic peptide were observed between control rats and MI rats. Competitive PCR showed a significant increase in rBSC1 mRNA in the renal outer medulla and cortex of MI rats, which was confirmed by in situ hybridization. However, the AQP2 mRNA of these rats remained unchanged throughout the kidney. Renin-angiotensin II blockade by oral captopril administration did not influence the alteration in rBSC1 mRNA induced by myocardial infarction. Immunohistochemistry and Western blots showed the enhanced expression of rBSC1 protein in TAL of rats with small to moderate cardiac infarcts. rBSC1 is up-regulated even in rats with small to moderate myocardial infarctions, which may enhance the sodium transport in the TAL in this pathophysiologic condition.
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              Limited urinary concentration and damaged tubules in rats with a syngeneic kidney graft


                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2003
                20 February 2003
                : 93
                : 2
                : p34-p41
                Departments of aClinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Tohoku University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, bSurgery, cMedicine, and dMolecular Medicine and Gene Transfer Research, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan
                68526 Nephron Physiol 2003;93:p34–p41
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 21 August 2002
                : 03 October 2002
                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/68526
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/68526
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Chronic renal failure,Rat model,Urinary concentration defect,Sodium cotransporter


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