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      Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract (GSPE) Improves Goat Sperm Quality When Preserved at 4 °C

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          Abstract

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          Artificial insemination (AI) is widely used in goats, stimulating the development of semen preservation techniques. Oxidative stress is considered to be the main cause of sperm quality decline over time. In this study, we explored the effect of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) during the liquid preservation of goat semen. The results showed that adding GSPE into the basic diluent enhanced sperm quality by eliminating oxidative stress. The most suitable concentration for the preservation of goat semen at 4 °C was 30 mg/L. This work suggests that promotes the viability of goat semen stored at low temperatures and provides a theoretical foundation for the development of more efficient diluents.

          Abstract

          Grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been shown to possess antioxidative effects. This experiment was designed to study the effect of GSPE during the liquid storage of goat semen. Semen samples were collected from six sexually mature goats. The samples were treated with different concentrations of GSPE (10, 30, 50, and 70 mg/L) in basic diluent and stored at 4 °C for 120 h; samples without GSPE were used as the control group. The results showed that sperm motility, acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, plasma membrane integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT) activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the treatment groups were significantly higher than in the control group, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower than in the control group ( p < 0.05). In the treatment group, sperm quality in the 30 mg/L GSPE group was significantly higher than the other groups ( p < 0.05). Furthermore, artificial insemination (AI) results showed that litter sizes were higher in the 30 mg/L GSPE group than in the control group ( p < 0.05). In summary, this experiment showed that adding GSPE to the basic diluent improved sperm quality and that 30 mg/L of GSPE was the most suitable concentration for the liquid preservation of goat semen at 4 °C.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention.

          Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumor promotion and carcinogenesis, and AIDS. Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and serve as inhibitors of neoplastic processes. A large number of synthetic and natural antioxidants have been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects on human health and disease prevention. However, the structure-activity relationship, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the antioxidants differ extensively. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins, naturally occurring antioxidants widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, flowers and bark, have been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and therapeutic activities against free radicals and oxidative stress. We have assessed the concentration- or dose-dependent free radical scavenging ability of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) both in vitro and in vivo models, and compared the free radical scavenging ability of GSPE with vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. These experiments demonstrated that GSPE is highly bioavailable and provides significantly greater protection against free radicals and free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. GSPE was also shown to demonstrate cytotoxicity towards human breast, lung and gastric adenocarcinoma cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal human gastric mucosal cells. The comparative protective effects of GSPE, vitamins C and E were examined on tobacco-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in human oral keratinocytes. Oxidative tissue damage was determined by lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, while apoptotic cell death was assessed by flow cytometry. GSPE provided significantly better protection as compared to vitamins C and E, singly and in combination. GSPE also demonstrated excellent protection against acetaminophen overdose-induced liver and kidney damage by regulating bcl-X(L) gene, DNA damage and presumably by reducing oxidative stress. GSPE demonstrated excellent protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction in rats. GSPE was also shown to upregulate bcl(2) gene and downregulate the oncogene c-myc. Topical application of GSPE enhances sun protection factor in human volunteers, as well as supplementation of GSPE ameliorates chronic pancreatitis in humans. These results demonstrate that GSPE provides excellent protection against oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue injury.
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            Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro.

            Proanthocyanidins, a group of polyphenolic bioflavonoids, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological, pharmacological and chemoprotective properties against oxygen free radicals. We have assessed the concentration-dependent oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), vitamin C and vitamin E succinate (VES) as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol against biochemically generated superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical using a chemiluminescence assay and cytochrome c reduction. A concentration-dependent inhibition was demonstrated by GSPE. At a 100 mg/l concentration, GSPE exhibited 78-81% inhibition of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. Under similar conditions, vitamin C inhibited these two oxygen free radicals by approximately 12-19%, while VES inhibited the two radicals by 36-44%. The combination of superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibited superoxide anion by approximately 83%, while mannitol resulted in an 87% inhibition of hydroxyl radical. The results demonstrate that GSPE is a more potent scavenger of oxygen free radicals as compared to vitamin C and VES.
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              Reactive oxygen species as mediators of sperm capacitation and pathological damage.

              Oxidative stress plays a major role in the life and death of mammalian spermatozoa. These gametes are professional generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to derive from three potential sources: sperm mitochondria, cytosolic L-amino acid oxidases, and plasma membrane Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases. The oxidative stress created via these sources appears to play a significant role in driving the physiological changes associated with sperm capacitation through the stimulation of a cyclic adenosine monophosphate/Protein kinase A phosphorylation cascade, including the activation of Extracellular signal regulated kinase-like proteins, massive up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation in the sperm tail, as well as the induction of sterol oxidation. When generated in excess, however, ROS can induce lipid peroxidation that, in turn, disrupts membrane characteristics that are critical for the maintenance of sperm function, including the capacity to fertilize an egg. Furthermore, the lipid aldehydes generated as a consequence of lipid peroxidation bind to proteins in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, triggering yet more ROS generation in a self-perpetuating cycle. The high levels of oxidative stress created as a result of this process ultimately damage the DNA in the sperm nucleus; indeed, DNA damage in the male germ line appears to be predominantly induced oxidatively, reflecting the vulnerability of these cells to such stress. Extensive evaluation of antioxidants that protect the spermatozoa against oxidative stress while permitting the normal reduction-oxidation regulation of sperm capacitation is therefore currently being undertaken, and has already proven efficacious in animal models.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                animals
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                MDPI
                2076-2615
                15 October 2019
                October 2019
                : 9
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China; 13087561604@ 123456163.com (F.W.); yuli0912@ 123456126.com (Y.L.); fengtianyu0105@ 123456126.com (T.F.); duyeqing1026@ 123456126.com (Y.D.); renfa0306@ 123456126.com (F.R.); zhanglikun6@ 123456163.com (L.Z.); hn126320@ 123456126.com (N.H.); 18702993635@ 123456163.com (S.M.); juvenile02@ 123456163.com (F.L.)
                [2 ]Ningxia Key Laboratory of Cerebrocranial Diseases, School of Basic Medical Science, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: williams19870215@ 123456outllook.com (P.W.); 2008114994@ 123456nwafu.edu.cn (J.H.); Tel.: +86-29-8709-2102 (P.W.); +86-29-8709-2164 (J.H.)
                Article
                animals-09-00810
                10.3390/ani9100810
                6827076
                31618989
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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