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      Assessment of short-term changes in street dust pollution with heavy metals in Lublin (E Poland)—levels, sources and risks


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          Street dust forms as a result of the interaction of the atmosphere, lithosphere (pedosphere) and anthroposphere and can be regarded as an index of the condition of the environment in urban areas. At the end of the twentieth century, there was a significant decrease in heavy metal emissions in Europe, but not so intensive in Poland. The question arises: Is the intensity of pollution still decreasing? The study objective was to assess changes in street dust pollution with heavy metals in Lublin (E Poland) in the years 2013 and 2018. The sample collection sites (68) were located within streets with a varying intensity of motor traffic. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined in two dust fractions, 63–200 μm and < 63 μm, by means of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The levels of street dust pollution with heavy metals, expressed both in absolute concentrations and geochemical indices, were lower in 2018 than those in 2013. The clearest decrease of concentration levels occurred within the main roads, in the 63–200 μm fraction for Cu and Cd, and in both fractions for Pb. The mean concentrations of the investigated metals, normalised to the background values, are in the following order for both fractions in 2013 and 2018: Zn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb > Ni. Metals form the following order for I geo and EF: Zn > Cd > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni. This order is slightly different for the ecological risk factor: Cd > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cr > Ni. In general, street dust in Lublin does not show contamination with Cr, Ni and Pb. I geo and EF indices show moderate levels of pollution with Cu, Cd and Zn.

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          Most cited references54

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          Sources and properties of non-exhaust particulate matter from road traffic: a review.

          While emissions control regulation has led to a substantial reduction in exhaust emissions from road traffic, currently non-exhaust emissions from road vehicles are unabated. These include particles from brake wear, tyre wear, road surface abrasion and resuspension in the wake of passing traffic. Quantification of the magnitude of such emissions is problematic both in the laboratory and the field and the latter depends heavily upon a knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of non-exhaust particles. This review looks at each source in turn, reviewing the available information on the source materials and particles derived from them in laboratory studies. In a final section, some of the key publications dealing with measurements in road tunnels and the roadside environment are reviewed. It is concluded that with the exception of brake dust particles which may be identified from their copper (Cu) and antimony (Sb) content, unequivocal identification of particles from other sources is likely to prove extremely difficult, either because of the lack of suitable tracer elements or compounds, or because of the interactions between sources prior to the emission process. Even in the case of brake dust, problems will arise in distinguishing directly emitted particles from those arising from resuspension of deposited brake dust from the road surface, or that derived from entrainment of polluted roadside soils, either directly or as a component of road surface dust.
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            Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China.

            Though there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of urban dusts in developed countries, little attention has been paid to this kind of study in developing countries, including China. Therefore, a series of investigations were performed to provide heavy metal signatures of urban dusts and to evaluate potential sources in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Sixty-five samples of urban dusts were collected in Xi'an. Then Ag, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and As, Hg and Sb concentrations by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that, in comparison with Chinese soil, urban dusts in Xi'an have elevated metal concentrations as a whole, except those of arsenic and manganese. These concentration levels are comparable to those in other studies. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were performed and three main sources with corresponding cluster elements were identified: (1) Ag and Hg have commercial and domestic sources; (2) Cr, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn are mainly derived from industrial sources, combined with traffic sources as well for Pb and Zn; (3) As and Mn come mainly from soil sources, and As also has an industrial source. Based on PCA and CA analyses, manganese was selected as the reference element, and heavy metal enrichment factors (Efs) were calculated, which in turn further confirms the source identification. Also, Efs give an insight of human influence degree of urban dusts.
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              Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China.

              Heavy metal contamination in the street dust due to metal smelting in the industrial district of Huludao city was investigated. Spatial distribution of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in the street dust was elucidated. Meanwhile, noncancer effect and cancer effect of children and adults due to exposure to the street dust were estimated. The maximum Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu contents in the street dust are 5.212, 3903, 726.2, 79,869, and 1532 mg kg(-1), and respectively 141, 181, 6724, 1257 and 77.4 times as high as the background values in soil. The trends for Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu are similar with higher concentrations trending Huludao zinc plant (HZP). The exponential equation fits quite well for the variations of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu contents with distance from the pollution sources, but not for Hg. The biggest contribution to street dust is atmospheric deposition due to metal smelting, but traffic density makes slight contribution to heavy metal contamination. According to the calculation on Hazard Index (HI), in the case of noncancer effect, the ingestion of dust particles of children and adults in Huludao city appears to be the route of exposure to street dust that results in a higher risk for heavy metals, followed by dermal contact. The inhalation of resuspended particles through the mouth and nose is almost negligible. The inhalation of Hg vapour as the fourth exposure pathway to street dust is accounting for the main exposure. Children are experiencing the potential health risk due to HI for Pb larger than safe level (1) and Cd close to 1. Besides, cancer risk of Cd due to inhalation exposure is low. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                +48 81 537-68-84 , wojciech.zglobicki@umcs.pl
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
                Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                30 October 2019
                30 October 2019
                : 26
                : 34
                : 35049-35060
                GRID grid.29328.32, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1303, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, , Maria-Curie Sklodowska University, ; Krasnicka 2D, 20-718 Lublin, Poland
                Author notes

                Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funded by: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

                General environmental science
                air quality,trace metals,geochemical indices,pollution changes,road dust,urban environment


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