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      Drug Resistance and Virological Failure among HIV-Infected Patients after a Decade of Antiretroviral Treatment Expansion in Eight Provinces of China

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          Abstract

          Background

          China’s National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program (NFATP) has substantially increased the survival rate since 2002. However, the emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) limits the durability and effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in at risk patients.

          Method

          A cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients having received a median of 13.9 months of ART in eight provinces in China. Demographic and clinical information was collected, and venous blood was sampled for CD4 cell counts, measurement of the HIV viral load (VL), and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) genotyping. Possible risk factors for HIVDR were analyzed by the logistic regression model.

          Results

          The study included 765 patients. Among them, 65 patients (8.5%) had virological failure (VLF) defined as ≥1,000 copies/ml. Among the individuals with VLF, 64 were successful genotyped, and of these, 33 had one or more HIVDR mutations. The prevalence of HIVDR mutations among patients receiving first-line ART was 4.3% (33/765). All of the patients with HIVDR mutations were resistant to non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitors, 81.8% were resistant to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and only 3% had mutations that caused resistance to protease inhibitors. Having lower ratios of drug intake in the past month and dwelling in two southwestern provinces were factors independently associated with the emergence of HIVDR.

          Conclusion

          Most patients receiving first-line ART treatment achieved sound virological and immunological outcomes. However, poor adherence is still a key problem, which has led to the high rate of HIVDR. It was notable that the proportion of drug resistance widely varied among the provinces. More studies are needed to focus on adherence.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Web resources for HIV type 1 genotypic-resistance test interpretation.

          Interpreting the results of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic drug-resistance tests is one of the most difficult tasks facing clinicians caring for HIV-1-infected patients. There are many drug-resistance mutations, and they arise in complex patterns that cause varying levels of drug resistance. In addition, HIV-1 exists in vivo as a virus population containing many genomic variants. Genotypic-resistance testing detects the drug-resistance mutations present in the most common plasma virus variants but may not detect drug-resistance mutations present in minor virus variants. Therefore, interpretation systems are necessary to determine the phenotypic and clinical significance of drug-resistance mutations found in a patient's plasma virus population. We describe the scientific principles of HIV-1 genotypic-resistance test interpretation and the most commonly used Web-based resources for clinicians ordering genotypic drug-resistance tests.
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            Effect of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment and increased treatment coverage on HIV-related mortality in China: a national observational cohort study.

            Overall HIV mortality rates in China have not been reported. In this analysis we assess overall mortality in treatment-eligible adults with HIV and attempt to identify risk factors for HIV-related mortality. We used data from the national HIV epidemiology and treatment databases to identify individuals aged 15 years or older with HIV who were eligible for highly active antiretroviral therapy between 1985 and 2009. Mortality rates were calculated in terms of person-years, with risk factors determined by Cox proportional hazard regression. Treatment coverage was calculated as the proportion of time that patients who were eligible for treatment received treatment, with risk factors for not receiving treatment identified by use of logistic regression. Of 323,252 people reported as having HIV in China by the end of 2009, 145,484 (45%) were identified as treatment-eligible and included in this analysis. Median CD4 count was 201 cells per μL (IQR 71-315) at HIV diagnosis and 194 cells per μL (73-293) when first declared eligible for treatment. Overall mortality decreased from 39·3 per 100 person-years in 2002 to 14·2 per 100 person-years in 2009, with treatment coverage concomitantly increasing from almost zero to 63·4%. By 2009, mortality was higher and treatment coverage lower in injecting drug users (15·9 deaths per 100 person-years; 42·7% coverage) and those infected sexually (17·5 deaths per 100 person-years; 61·7% coverage), compared with those infected through plasma donation or blood transfusion (6·7 deaths per 100 person-years; 80·2% coverage). The two strongest risk factors for HIV-related mortality were not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 4·35, 95% CI 4·10-4·62) and having a CD4 count of less than 50 cells per μL when first declared eligible for treatment (7·92, 7·33-8.57). An urgent need exists for earlier HIV diagnosis and better access to treatment for injecting drug users and patients infected with HIV sexually, especially before they become severely immunosuppressed. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention of the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Five-year outcomes of the China National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program.

              China's National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program began in 2002 and, by August 2008, included more than 52 000 patients. To report 5-year outcomes on adult mortality and immunologic treatment failure rates and risk factors. Open cohort analysis of a prospectively collected, observational database. China. All patients in the national treatment database from June 2002 to August 2008. Patients were excluded if they had not started triple therapy or had missing treatment regimen information. Antiretroviral therapy according to Chinese national treatment guidelines. Mortality rate and immunologic treatment failure rate, according to World Health Organization criteria. Of 52 191 patients, 48 785 were included. Median age was 38 years, 58% were men, 53% were infected through plasma or blood, and the median baseline CD4 cell count was 0.118x10(9) cells/L. Mortality was greatest during the first 3 months of treatment (22.6 deaths per 100 person-years) but decreased to a steady rate of 4 to 5 deaths per 100 person-years after 6 months and maintained this rate over the subsequent 4.5 years. The strongest mortality risk factors were a baseline CD4 cell count less than 0.050x10(9) cells/L (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] compared with a count>or=0.200x10(9) cells/L, 3.3 [95% CI, 2.9 to 3.8]) and having 4 to 5 baseline symptom categories (adjusted HR compared with no baseline symptom categories, 3.4 [CI, 2.9 to 4.0]). Treatment failure was determined among 31 070 patients with 1 or more follow-up CD4 cell counts. Overall, treatment failed for 25% of patients (12.0 treatment failures per 100 person-years), with the cumulative treatment failure rate increasing to 50% at 5 years. Immunologic treatment failure does not necessarily correlate well with virologic treatment failure. The National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program reduced mortality among adult patients in China with AIDS to rates similar to those of other low- or middle-income countries. A cumulative immunologic treatment failure rate of 50% after 5 years, due to the limited availability of second-line regimens, is of great concern.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                20 December 2016
                2016
                : 11
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China
                [2 ]Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, China
                [3 ]Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guiyang, China
                [4 ]Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health, Nashville, Tennessee, United States of America
                National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GREECE
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: LL YS YR HX.

                • Data curation: ZZ WK XL.

                • Investigation: SL XS JY.

                • Methodology: LL YS YR HX.

                • Writing – original draft: ZZ SB.

                • Writing – review & editing: ZZ.

                ‡ These authors also contributed equally to this work.

                PONE-D-16-31160
                10.1371/journal.pone.0166661
                5172524
                27997554
                © 2016 Zuo et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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                Funding
                This study was supported by grants from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2012ZX10001-002), the Chinese State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Develop Grant, and the International Development Research Center of Canada (grant #104519-010). The fund providers had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Scottie Bussell contributed to this work during his fellowship, which was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Research Training Grant R25 TW009337, funded by Fogarty International Center, the NIH Office of the Director, and the National institute of Mental Health.
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