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      Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol outcomes post-non-PCSK9i lipid-lowering therapies in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and probable heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients

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          Abstract

          Background

          This study evaluated the proportion of patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and probable heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) achieving ≥50% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or reaching the LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL threshold, after initiating or modifying statin, and/or ezetimibe therapy.

          Materials and methods

          Adult ASCVD patients with baseline LDL-C >70 mg/dL (index) and a subset of patients with probable HeFH (proxied by LDL-C ≥190 mg/dL) were identified between January 1, 2012, and August 31, 2014, from the IQVIA electronic medical record database. Patients were followed for 12 months pre-index to examine baseline lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) use, and 12 months post index to evaluate treatment modifications and post-treatment LDL-C levels, stratified by type of treatment received and LDL-C levels at baseline.

          Results

          Of the sample of ASCVD patients who initiated treatment post-index (n=111,147), only 7.6% patients achieved a ≥50% reduction from baseline LDL-C and 19.1% of patients reached the LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL threshold. Among treated ASCVD patients who modified therapy post-index (n=75,523), 5.6% achieved a ≥50% reduction in LDL-C, and proportion of patients achieving LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL ranged from 6.9% to 26.7%, depending on the baseline LDL-C levels. Approximately 50% of the untreated probable HeFH patients (n=3,064) initiated LLT; however, the mean (SD) post-treatment LDL-C remained high (136.2 [47.8] mg/dL), with only 4.4% reaching LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL. Of the treated probable HeFH patients (n=1,073), 41.5% modified treatment; 22.1% achieved a ≥50% reduction in LDL-C and 1.1% reached LDL-C ≤70 mg/dL.

          Conclusion

          This study found that most patients had suboptimal LDL-C responses after initiating or modifying standard LLT (statin and/or ezetimibe). More frequent and aggressive lipid management, including increasing statin intensity and alternative therapies, may be needed in patients with ASCVD and probable HeFH to reduce their cardiovascular risk.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Lipid levels in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease: an analysis of 136,905 hospitalizations in Get With The Guidelines.

          Lipid levels among contemporary patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD) have not been well studied. This study aimed to analyze admission lipid levels in a broad contemporary population of patients hospitalized with CAD. The Get With The Guidelines database was analyzed for CAD hospitalizations from 2000 to 2006 with documented lipid levels in the first 24 hours of admission. Patients were divided into low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and triglyceride categories. Factors associated with LDL and HDL levels were assessed along with temporal trends. Of 231,986 hospitalizations from 541 hospitals, admission lipid levels were documented in 136,905 (59.0%). Mean lipid levels were LDL 104.9 +/- 39.8, HDL 39.7 +/- 13.2, and triglyceride 161 +/- 128 mg/dL. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or =60 mg/dL) in only 1.4%. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was or =60 mg/dL. These findings may provide further support for recent guideline revisions with even lower LDL goals and for developing effective treatments to raise HDL.
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            Management of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.

            Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Although FH is one of the most common genetic disorders, this disorder remains mostly undetected and its management is often suboptimal. High-intensity statins are standard treatment for patients with FH, but LDL-C levels in most patients treated with statin monotherapy remain above those recommended by guidelines. Combination therapy to lower LDL-C levels further-such as treatment with statins plus ezetimibe-has been successful, and combination of apheresis with high-intensity statin treatment is used in patients with homozygous FH and in those with heterozygous FH who are statin-refractory. Mipomersen, an inhibitor of apolipoprotein B-100 synthesis, and lomitapide, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein inhibitor, reduce LDL-C levels further when added to high-intensity statin treatment in homozygous FH, but both have important adverse effects, such as increasing liver fat content. At present, PCSK9 inhibition (with alirocumab or evolocumab) is well tolerated and reduces LDL-C levels considerably in patients receiving the maximally tolerated statin treatment, and seems the most promising emerging treatment option. Nevertheless, data from outcome trials with hard end points for PCSK9 inhibitors, mipomersen, and lomitapide are still needed before these therapies become standard for patients with FH.
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              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Patterns of Statin Use in a Real-World Population of Patients at High Cardiovascular Risk.

              Widespread use of statins has improved hypercholesterolemia management, yet a significant proportion of patients remain at risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Analyses of treatment patterns reveal inadequate intensity and duration of statin therapy among patients with hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about real-world statin use, specifically in subgroups of patients at high risk for CV events.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2018
                13 December 2018
                : 14
                : 2425-2435
                Affiliations
                [1 ]IQVIA, Plymouth Meeting, PA, USA
                [2 ]Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, prane@ 123456amgen.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Pallavi B Rane, Amgen Inc., 1 Amgen Center Dr, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, CA, USA, Tel +1 805 447 5490, Email prane@ 123456amgen.com
                Article
                tcrm-14-2425
                10.2147/TCRM.S180783
                6296203
                © 2018 Chen et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                lipid-lowering therapy, hyperlipidemia, statin, ldl-c, hefh, ascvd

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