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      Global trends in diabetes complications: a review of current evidence

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d14819712e111">In recent decades, large increases in diabetes prevalence have been demonstrated in virtually all regions of the world. The increase in the number of people with diabetes or with a longer duration of diabetes is likely to alter the disease profile in many populations around the globe, particularly due to a higher incidence of diabetes-specific complications, such as kidney failure and peripheral arterial disease. The epidemiology of other conditions frequently associated with diabetes, including infections and cardiovascular disease, may also change, with direct effects on quality of life, demands on health services and economic costs. The current understanding of the international burden of and variation in diabetes-related complications is poor. The available data suggest that rates of myocardial infarction, stroke and amputation are decreasing among people with diabetes, in parallel with declining mortality. However, these data predominantly come from studies in only a few high-income countries. Trends in other complications of diabetes, such as end-stage renal disease, retinopathy and cancer, are less well explored. In this review, we synthesise data from population-based studies on trends in diabetes complications, with the objectives of: (1) characterising recent and long-term trends in diabetes-related complications; (2) describing regional variation in the excess risk of complications, where possible; and (3) identifying and prioritising gaps for future surveillance and study. </p>

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          Most cited references53

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          IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040.

          To produce current estimates of the national, regional and global impact of diabetes for 2015 and 2040.
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            Achievement of goals in U.S. diabetes care, 1999-2010.

            Tracking national progress in diabetes care may aid in the evaluation of past efforts and identify residual gaps in care. We analyzed data for adults with self-reported diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine risk-factor control, preventive practices, and risk scores for coronary heart disease over the 1999-2010 period. From 1999 through 2010, the weighted proportion of survey participants who met recommended goals for diabetes care increased, by 7.9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 15.0) for glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin level <7.0%), 9.4 percentage points (95% CI, 3.0 to 15.8) for individualized glycemic targets, 11.7 percentage points (95% CI, 5.7 to 17.7) for blood pressure (target, <130/80 mm Hg), and 20.8 percentage points (95% CI, 11.6 to 30.0) for lipid levels (target level of low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, <100 mg per deciliter [2.6 mmol per liter]). Tobacco use did not change significantly, but the 10-year probability of coronary heart disease decreased by 2.8 to 3.7 percentage points. However, 33.4 to 48.7% of persons with diabetes still did not meet the targets for glycemic control, blood pressure, or LDL cholesterol level. Only 14.3% met the targets for all three of these measures and for tobacco use. Adherence to the recommendations for annual eye and dental examinations was unchanged, but annual lipid-level measurement and foot examination increased by 5.5 percentage points (95% CI, 1.6 to 9.4) and 6.8 percentage points (95% CI, 4.8 to 8.8), respectively. Annual vaccination for influenza and receipt of pneumococcal vaccination for participants 65 years of age or older rose by 4.5 percentage points (95% CI, 0.8 to 8.2) and 6.9 percentage points (95% CI, 3.4 to 10.4), respectively, and daily glucose monitoring increased by 12.7 percentage points (95% CI, 10.3 to 15.1). Although there were improvements in risk-factor control and adherence to preventive practices from 1999 to 2010, tobacco use remained high, and almost half of U.S. adults with diabetes did not meet the recommended goals for diabetes care.
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              Lower extremity amputations--a review of global variability in incidence.

              To quantify global variation in the incidence of lower extremity amputations in light of the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus. An electronic search was performed using the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases from 1989 until 2010 for incidence of lower extremity amputation. The literature review conformed to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement standards. Incidence of all forms of lower extremity amputation ranges from 46.1 to 9600 per 10(5) in the population with diabetes compared with 5.8-31 per 10(5) in the total population. Major amputation ranges from 5.6 to 600 per 10(5) in the population with diabetes and from 3.6 to 68.4 per 10(5) in the total population. Significant reductions in incidence of lower extremity amputation have been shown in specific at-risk populations after the introduction of specialist diabetic foot clinics. Significant global variation exists in the incidence of lower extremity amputation. Ethnicity and social deprivation play a significant role but it is the role of diabetes and its complications that is most profound. Lower extremity amputation reporting methods demonstrate significant variation with no single standard upon which to benchmark care. Effective standardized reporting methods of major, minor and at-risk populations are needed in order to quantify and monitor the growing multidisciplinary team effect on lower extremity amputation rates globally. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetologia
                Diabetologia
                Springer Nature
                0012-186X
                1432-0428
                January 2019
                August 31 2018
                January 2019
                : 62
                : 1
                : 3-16
                Article
                10.1007/s00125-018-4711-2
                30171279
                3f57c9f0-c956-4d17-9ab4-ad5e57f782c4
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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