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      Detection of myocardial fibrosis: Where we stand

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          Abstract

          Myocardial fibrosis, resulting from the disturbance of extracellular matrix homeostasis in response to different insults, is a common and important pathological remodeling process that is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, including arrhythmia, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death. Over the past decades, multiple non-invasive detection methods have been developed. Laboratory biomarkers can aid in both detection and risk stratification by reflecting cellular and even molecular changes in fibrotic processes, yet more evidence that validates their detection accuracy is still warranted. Different non-invasive imaging techniques have been demonstrated to not only detect myocardial fibrosis but also provide information on prognosis and management. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered as the gold standard imaging technique to non-invasively identify and quantify myocardial fibrosis with its natural ability for tissue characterization. This review summarizes the current understanding of the non-invasive detection methods of myocardial fibrosis, with the focus on different techniques and clinical applications of CMR.

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          Most cited references136

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          Remodelling the extracellular matrix in development and disease.

          The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a highly dynamic structure that is present in all tissues and continuously undergoes controlled remodelling. This process involves quantitative and qualitative changes in the ECM, mediated by specific enzymes that are responsible for ECM degradation, such as metalloproteinases. The ECM interacts with cells to regulate diverse functions, including proliferation, migration and differentiation. ECM remodelling is crucial for regulating the morphogenesis of the intestine and lungs, as well as of the mammary and submandibular glands. Dysregulation of ECM composition, structure, stiffness and abundance contributes to several pathological conditions, such as fibrosis and invasive cancer. A better understanding of how the ECM regulates organ structure and function and of how ECM remodelling affects disease progression will contribute to the development of new therapeutics.
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            2017 ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Failure Society of America

            Circulation, 136(6)
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              Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Nonischemic Myocardial Inflammation

              This JACC Scientific Expert Panel provides consensus recommendations for an update of the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) diagnostic criteria for myocardial inflammation in patients with suspected acute or active myocardial inflammation (Lake Louise Criteria) that include options to use parametric mapping techniques. While each parameter may indicate myocardial inflammation, the authors propose that CMR provides strong evidence for myocardial inflammation, with increasing specificity, if the CMR scan demonstrates the combination of myocardial edema with other CMR markers of inflammatory myocardial injury. This is based on at least one T2-based criterion (global or regional increase of myocardial T2 relaxation time or an increased signal intensity in T2-weighted CMR images), with at least one T1-based criterion (increased myocardial T1, extracellular volume, or late gadolinium enhancement). While having both a positive T2-based marker and a T1-based marker will increase specificity for diagnosing acute myocardial inflammation, having only one (i.e., T2-based OR T1-based) marker may still support a diagnosis of acute myocardial inflammation in an appropriate clinical scenario, albeit with less specificity. The update is expected to improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMR further in detecting myocardial inflammation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front Cardiovasc Med
                Front. Cardiovasc. Med.
                Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2297-055X
                29 September 2022
                2022
                : 9
                : 926378
                Affiliations
                [1] 1State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Fuwai Hospital , Beijing, China
                [2] 2Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College , Beijing, China
                [3] 3School of Medicine, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou, China
                [4] 4Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Imaging (Cultivation), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Christian Zuppinger, Bern University Hospital, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Katarzyna Czarzasta, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; Mariann Gyöngyösi, Medical University of Vienna, Austria

                *Correspondence: Minjie Lu coolkan@ 123456163.com

                This article was submitted to Cardiovascular Imaging, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

                Article
                10.3389/fcvm.2022.926378
                9557071
                36247487
                3f65a720-4c30-426a-b50d-529c96d58a8e
                Copyright © 2022 Zhu, Wang, Zhao and Lu.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 22 April 2022
                : 28 July 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 136, Pages: 13, Words: 10361
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China, doi 10.13039/501100001809;
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Medicine
                Review

                myocardial fibrosis,heart failure,biomarkers,non-invasive imaging,cardiovascular magnetic resonance

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