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      Mechanical properties, in vitro degradation behavior, hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity evaluation of Zn–1.2Mg alloy for biodegradable implants

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          Abstract

          The microstructure, mechanical properties, in vitro degradation behavior, in vitro hemocompatibility and cytotoxicity were tested to investigate Zn–1.2Mg alloy as a new biodegradable material.

          Abstract

          Zn, which is a promising alternative candidate as a biodegradable implant material, possesses excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the insufficiency of its strength and hardness has largely limited its application. Nevertheless, adding alloying elements and mechanical forming by extrusion have generally enhanced its mechanical properties. In the present work, Zn–1.2Mg alloy has been designed and treated by extrusion. Experimental results demonstrated that the studied alloys were composed of a matrix of Zn and a precipitated phase of Mg 2Zn 11, and the grain size became smaller and more homogeneous after extrusion. The as-extruded alloy exhibited much higher yield strength (YS 219.61 MPa), ultimate tensile strength (UTS 362.64 MPa), elongation (21.31%) and hardness (96.01 HV). The corrosion rates of the as-extruded alloy were higher compared with those of the as-cast alloy and reached values of 0.19 mm per year in electrochemical tests and 0.11 mm per year after exposure in Hank's solution for 30 days, respectively. Moreover, the as-extruded alloy displayed excellent hemocompatibility (hemolysis rate of 1.85%, superior thromboresistance and no signs of thrombogenicity). The viability of human osteosarcoma HOS cells and MG63 cells cultured in diluted extracts of the alloy exceeded 70%, which demonstrated no potential cytotoxicity and tolerance in cellular applications.

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          Biodegradable metals

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            Metallic implant biomaterials

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              Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl).

              Micronutrients are involved in all metabolic and cellular functions. Plants differ in their need for micronutrients, and we will focus here only on those elements that are generally accepted as essential for all higher plants: boron (B), chloride (Cl), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). Several of these elements are redox-active that makes them essential as catalytically active cofactors in enzymes, others have enzyme-activating functions, and yet others fulfill a structural role in stabilizing proteins. In this review, we focus on the major functions of mineral micronutrients, mostly in cases where they were shown as constituents of proteins, making a selection and highlighting some functions in more detail.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                RSCACL
                RSC Advances
                RSC Adv.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2046-2069
                2016
                2016
                : 6
                : 89
                : 86410-86419
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedics
                [2 ]Xijing Hospital
                [3 ]Fourth Military Medical University
                [4 ]Xi'an 710032
                [5 ]China
                [6 ]Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering
                [7 ]Harbin Engineering University
                [8 ]Harbin 150001
                [9 ]Lepu Medical Technology Co., Ltd
                [10 ]Beijing 102200
                [11 ]National Engineering Research Center for Heart Disease Explants Intervention of Medical Instruments and Equipment
                [12 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering
                Article
                10.1039/C6RA14300H
                3f68c38e-bee4-4f15-909b-be3108caee9a
                © 2016
                History

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