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      Neutrophil–Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) for Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

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          Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) combined with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) frequently occurred. In this study, we aimed at exploring the prognostic significance of blood neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in these types of patients.

          Patients and Methods

          Between June 30, 2010 and August 30, 2017, 1454 patients with CVD were enrolled in this study. Kaplan and Meier methodology was used for survival analysis. We also used propensity score matching (PSM) to further compare survival in patients with or without T2DM.


          Among all patients, we applied ROC curve analysis to stratify all patients into two different groups including NLR >2.5 (n=432) and NLR≤ 2.5 (n=1022) groups. After that, we further performed survival analysis between different groups. We found that patients with NLR ≤2.5 had significantly favorable OS compared with the overall survival in patients with NLR >2.5. We further built the PSM using 242 pairs of patients who have CVD and with or without T2DM. After adjusting for competing risk factors, we performed Cox proportional hazards models to identify the independent prognostic factors in multivariable adjustment. We found that NLR ≤2.5 (HR: 2.576, 95% CI: 1.241–4.583, P =0.001) and extent of coronary artery disease (HR: 2.432, 95% CI: 1.189–4.392, P =0.005) remained independent predictors of OS.


          In conclusion, we have established an PSM model and found that a high NLR value was an independent prognostic factor for survival, predicting in patients with both CAD and T2DM. The NLR value would be a valuable biomarker to evaluate the outcomes of patients and give them opportunities for choosing alternative therapies.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: Have all risk factors the same strength?

          Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition that occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use of insulin. Compared with individuals without diabetes, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease. Most of this excess risk is it associated with an augmented prevalence of well-known risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity in these patients. However the improved cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients can not be attributed solely to the higher prevalence of traditional risk factors. Therefore other non-traditional risk factors may be important in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular disease is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects due to a complex combination of various traditional and non-traditional risk factors that have an important role to play in the beginning and the evolution of atherosclerosis over its long natural history from endothelial function to clinical events. Many of these risk factors could be common history for both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, reinforcing the postulate that both disorders come independently from "common soil". The objective of this review is to highlight the weight of traditional and non-traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the setting of type 2 diabetes mellitus and discuss their position in the pathogenesis of the excess cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity in these patients.
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            Type 2 diabetes in adolescents and young adults

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              Elevated preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts poor survival following resection in late stage gastric cancer.

              Elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio) has been shown to be a prognostic indicator in various cancers. We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the preoperative N/L ratio in late stage gastric cancer. From April 2004 to August 2007, 293 patients who had undergone gastrectomy with curative intent for the AJCC/UICC TNM Stage III or IV gastric cancer were included. N/L ratio was calculated from lymphocyte and neutrophil counts on routine blood tests taken prior to surgery. The median follow-up time for surviving patients was 38.2 months (4.2-65.5 months) and median preoperative N/L ratio was 2.06 (range 0.47-19.73). Subjects were dichotomized at the N/L value of 2.0. A multivariate analysis established a significant relationship between the N/L ratio and overall survival (HR=1.609; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.144-2.264; P=0.006). The cutoff value up to 3.0, the value of 75 percentiles, showed a significant prognostic effect on disease-free survival (HR=1.654; 95% CI, 1.088-2.515; P=0.019). The results suggest that the elevated preoperative N/L ratio predicts poor disease-free and overall survival following resection for late stage gastric cancer. It may be utilized as a simple, reliable prognostic factor for risk stratification and will provide better treatment allocation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                19 May 2020
                : 16
                : 437-443
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Bayan Nur Hospital of the Nei Monggol Autonomous Region , Bayan Nur City 015000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shujun Guo Department of Cardiology, Bayan Nur Hospital of the Nei Monggol Autonomous Region , Bayan Nur Hospital, No. 98 Wulanbuhe Road, Linhe District, Bayan Nur City015000, People’s Republic of China Email zuiailicip@126.com
                © 2020 Qiao et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 42, Pages: 7
                Original Research


                t2dm, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio, nlr, cardiovascular diseases, cvd, type 2 diabetes mellitus


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