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      Susceptibility of the Lesser Mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), From Broiler Farms of Southern Brazil to Insecticides


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          The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is considered the primary insect pest in broiler farms in Brazil. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of A. diaperinus populations from broiler farms of southern Brazil to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus were exposed to these technical insecticides diluted in acetone in residual bioassays. A geographic variation in the susceptibility of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus to both insecticides was detected. The larval LC 50 for cypermethrin ranged from 0.43 to 7.33 µg a.i./cm 2. Two populations from Santa Catarina state presented higher resistance ratios of 13.6- and 17-fold. When adults were exposed to cypermethrin, the LC 50 ranged from 0.46 to 4.93 µg a.i./cm 2, with population SC-3 from Santa Catarina having lower susceptibility (resistance ratio of 10.7-fold). When exposed to chlorpyrifos, A. diaperinus larvae present LC 50 values ranging from 0.21 to 4.30 µg a.i./cm 2. Larvae from Paraná and Santa Catarina (SC-1 population) presented the highest resistance ratios, ranging from 10- to 20-fold. In adults, the LC 50 of chlorpyrifos ranged from 0.17 to 5.30 µg a.i./cm 2, showing a maximum resistance ratio of 31-fold in a population from Paraná state. Based on LC 99 values, candidate diagnostic concentrations of 15 and 12 µg a.i./cm 2 of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively, were also estimated for the resistance monitoring of A. diaperinus in Brazil. The implications of these results in Insect Resistance Management are discussed.

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          Transmission of Eimeria , Viruses, and Bacteria to Chicks: Darkling Beetles ( Alphitobius diaperinus ) as Vectors of Pathogens

          Darkling beetle homogenates (DBH) were prepared from beetles collected from seven premises (farms). DBH were shown to contain myriad infectious organisms including bacteria (e.g., Salmonella), viruses (e.g., reovirus), and Eimeria (the causative agents of intestinal coccidiosis). The present study establishes the fact that darkling beetles serve as vectors for common avian pathogens. Darkling beetles must be considered on a list of other vectors known to transmit common poultry pathogens. The risk posed by beetles with respect to dissemination of diseases is of immense importance to the poultry industry. The possibility of severe adverse economic impact as a result of these diseases should not be overlooked or casually dismissed.
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            Feeding Behavior and Growth of Broiler Chicks Fed Larvae of the Darkling Beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus

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              Isolamento de enterobactérias em Alphitobius diaperinus e na cama de aviários no oeste do estado do Paraná, Brasil

              O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o isolamento de bactérias da família Enterobacteriaceae em adultos de A. diaperinus, buscando uma correlação entre as bactérias presentes no inseto e na cama, em aviários para produção de frangos de corte no oeste do Paraná, Brasil. No primeiro experimento, insetos adultos foram coletados em 14 granjas. No segundo experimento, foram coletados insetos e material da cama de 12 diferentes aviários. Os adultos foram anestesiados com éter, macerados em solução salina e o material da cama colhido por "swab" de arrasto. O enriquecimento não seletivo foi feito com caldo BHI e o seletivo com Rappaport-Vassiliadis e Tetrationato. Os meios de cultivo para plaqueamento foram o ágar MacConkey, ágar Salmonella-Shigella e ágar verde-brilhante. As enterobactérias isoladas em adultos de A. diaperinus foram: Proteus Vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Escherichia Coli, Enterobacter spp., E. agglomerans, E. gergoviae, E. sakasakii, Citrobacter Diversus e Klebsiella Pneumoniae, enquanto que na cama foram encontrados Proteus Vulgaris, P. mirabilis, Escherichia Coli, Enterobacter Agglomerans. Não foram isoladas Salmonella spp. do inseto nem da cama e P. vulgaris foi a predominante. E. coli foi freqüente nas granjas, tanto na cama como nos insetos e contribuem na disseminação da colibacilose em aviários.

                Author and article information

                J Econ Entomol
                J. Econ. Entomol
                Journal of Economic Entomology
                Oxford University Press (US )
                April 2018
                08 March 2018
                02 April 2019
                : 111
                : 2
                : 980-985
                Department of Plant Protection, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author, e-mail: oderlei.bernardi@ 123456ufsm.br
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

                This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model ( https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices)

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic or until permissions are revoked in writing. Upon expiration of these permissions, PMC is granted a perpetual license to make this article available via PMC and Europe PMC, consistent with existing copyright protections.

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Funded by: Fino Saúde Animal Ltda
                Veterinary Entomology

                poultry,lesser mealworm,pyrethroid,organophosphate,insecticide resistance


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