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      Arthropod diversity in two Historic Gardens in the Azores, Portugal

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          Abstract

          The aim of our study was to characterise and compare the richness and composition of endemic, native (non-endemic) and introduced arthropod assemblages of two Azorean Historic Gardens with contrasting plant species composition. We hypothesised that Faial Botanic Garden would hold higher arthropod diversity and abundance of native and endemic arthropod species due to its larger native plant community. Species were collected using several arthropod standardised techniques between April 2017 and June 2018. We used the alpha diversity metrics (Hill series) and the partitioning of total beta diversity (β total) into its replacement (β repl) and richness (β rich) components, to analyse the adult and total arthropod community. The orders Araneae , Coleoptera and Hemiptera were also studied separately. Our results show that the number of exotic arthropod species exceeds the number of native and/or the endemic species in both gardens, but the arthropod community of Faial Botanic Garden exhibited a higher density of endemic and native species. Despite some minor exceptions, the geographic origins of plant communities largely influenced the arthropod species sampled in each garden. This study improves our knowledge about urban arthropod diversity in the Azores and shows how well-designed urban garden management and planning contribute to the conservation of native and endemic Azorean species.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals

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            Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation.

             Ingo Kowarik (2015)
            With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              A Possible Method for the Rapid Assessment of Biodiversity

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                1
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F9B2E808-C883-5F47-B276-6D62129E4FF4
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:245B00E9-BFE5-4B4F-B76E-15C30BA74C02
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2836
                1314-2828
                2020
                06 August 2020
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] CE3C – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores, Angra do Heroísmo, Azores, Portugal CE3C – Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and Universidade dos Açores Angra do Heroísmo, Azores Portugal
                [2 ] LIBRe – Laboratory for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland LIBRe – Laboratory for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki Helsinki Finland
                [3 ] Jardim Botânico do Faial, Sociedade de Gestão Ambiental e Conservação da Natureza, Azorina S.A., Horta, Azores, Portugal Jardim Botânico do Faial, Sociedade de Gestão Ambiental e Conservação da Natureza, Azorina S.A. Horta, Azores Portugal
                [4 ] Universidade dos Açores, CHAM e FCSH Rua Mãe de Deus, 9500-321, Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal Universidade dos Açores, CHAM e FCSH Rua Mãe de Deus, 9500-321 Ponta Delgada, Azores Portugal
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Paulo A.V. Borges ( paulo.av.borges@ 123456uac.pt ).

                Academic editor: Pedro Cardoso

                Article
                54749 14073
                10.3897/BDJ.8.e54749
                7426280
                Alba Arteaga, Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte, Rosalina Gabriel, Alejandra Ros-Prieto, Pedro Casimiro, Ana Fuentes Sanchez, Isabel S. Albergaria, Paulo A.V. Borges

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 8, References: 56
                Funding
                This work was partially financed by FEDER in 85% and by Azorean Public funds by 15% through Operational Program Azores 2020, under the project Green Garden Azores (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000070) and AZORESBIOPORTAL –PORBIOTA (ACORES-01-0145-FEDER-000072). AA received a EURODYSSÉE grant from the Azorean Government and ARP received an ESTAGIAR-T grant from the Azorean Government
                Categories
                Research Article
                Azores Biota

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