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      Evaluating Sepsis during Continuous Dialysis: Are Biomarkers Still Valid?

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          Most cited references 6

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          Newly designed CRRT membranes for sepsis and SIRS--a pragmatic approach for bedside intensivists summarizing the more recent advances: a systematic structured review.

          In recent years, after all the attention has been focused on the dose for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in sepsis and systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS), the relatively negative results of all those studies did urge our expectations on new approaches regarding CRRT in sepsis and SIRS. So far, after the failure of the major randomized studies on dose, attention is now drawn to new membranes that could better eliminate massive amounts of unbound mediators in wider spectrum and also in greater magnitude Nevertheless, for septic acute kidney injury, the recommended dose will remain 35 ml/kg/h until the IVOIRE (hIgh VOlume in Intensive Care) study will be published. In this new armamentarium, we have distinguished the first tools that can still be called membranes ranging from AN69 Surface Treated (ST), SEPTEX, polymethylmetacrylate, to Oxiris that can still run with a CRRT device. Polymyxin B is still a kind of membrane although it has a larger surface, but it can run in a hemoperfusion system and is also much more selective. Adsorptive columns and sorbents are not anymore membranes but are seen as cartridges as the surface is extremely huge when compared with that of membranes (more than 500 m). They can still run in a hemoperfusion device. At the very end, we do have apheresis or selective plasma exchange (also very close to sorbents and columns) but we have very few data up to now regarding sepsis. Regarding spectrum, CytoSorb seems to be very promising although it is not able to capture endotoxin and IL-10. Oxiris is also promising as it can capture endotoxin and cytokines. AN69 ST is very powerful to capture numerous cytokines and especially high-mobility group box 1 protein (a very upstream cytokine). Polymethylmetacrylate has also the power to capture endotoxin and numerous other cytokines probably with a larger magnitude than Oxiris although this is not proven. Lastly, high-porosity membranes (Septex) may play a role especially when used in continuous venovenous hemodialysis mode. At the end, if we look for a more enlarged spectrum and a higher magnitude, CytoSorb might be seen as the most promising although not having the ability to fix endotoxin. Future studies will tell us which membrane or sorbent will be most useful in the adjunctive treatment for sepsis.
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            Elimination of the cardiac natriuretic peptides B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP by hemodialysis.

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              Structural and functional comparison of native pentameric, denatured monomeric and biotinylated C-reactive protein.

              There are many controversies surrounding the biological activities of native C-reactive protein (nCRP) and its various modified forms such as monomerized and biotinylated CRP (mCRP and bCRP). No simple methods have been described to distinguish among these forms. By adapting established electrophoresis methods, we have developed a useful quality control method with which we have investigated the structural and functional characteristics of these forms of CRP. Under all electrophoresis conditions, biotinylation altered the electrophoretic mobility of CRP. nCRP was sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-induced monomerization, and only mCRP was susceptible to digestion by trypsin or neutrophil-derived serine proteases. bCRP and mCRP but not nCRP bound to cells, suggesting that chemical modification by biotin and denaturation had altered the structural integrity of CRP. Neither nCRP nor mCRP had the ability to induce secretion of chemokines, nor did they increase intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2014
                December 2014
                17 October 2014
                : 38
                : 2
                : 104-105
                Affiliations
                ICU Department, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium
                Author notes
                *Prof. Patrick Honoré, MD, PhD, FCCM, ICU Department, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 101, Laarbeeklaan, BE-1090 Brussels (Belgium), E-Mail Patrick.Honore@az.vub.ac.be
                Article
                363497 Blood Purif 2014;38:104-105
                10.1159/000363497
                25342547
                © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 2
                Categories
                Letter to the Editor

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