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      WU and KI Polyomaviruses in Respiratory Samples from Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients


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          Routine testing for these viruses in immunocompromised patients is not recommended.


          Data are limited regarding 2 new human polyomaviruses, KI polyomavirus (KIPyV) and WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), in immunocompromised patients. We used real-time PCR to test for these and 12 respiratory viruses in 2,732 nasal wash samples collected during the first year after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from 222 patients. Specimens were collected weekly until day 100; then at least every 3 months. One year after hematopoietic cell transplantation, the cumulative incidence estimate was 26% for KIPyV and 8% for WUPyV. Age <20 years predicted detection of KIPyV (hazard ratio [HR] 4.6) and WUPyV (HR 4.4), and detection of a respiratory virus in the previous 2 weeks predicted KIPyV detection (HR 3.4). Sputum production and wheezing were associated with detection of KIPyV in the past week and WUPyV in the past month. There were no associations with polyomavirus detection and acute graft versus host disease, cytomegalovirus reactivation, neutropenia, lymphopenia, hospitalization, or death.

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          Most cited references34

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          Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children.

          Conventional fluorescent-antibody (FA) methods were compared to real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus type A (FluA), parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3 (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3), human metapneumovirus (MPV), and adenovirus (AdV) in 1,138 specimens from children with respiratory illnesses collected over a 1-year period. At least one virus was detected in 436 (38.3%) specimens by FA and in 608 (53.4%) specimens by PCR (P<0.001). Specimen quality was inadequate for FA in 52 (4.6%) specimens; 13 of these (25%) were positive by PCR. In contrast, 18 (1.6%) specimens could not be analyzed by PCR; 1 of these was positive by FA. The number of specimens positive only by PCR among specimens positive by PCR and/or FA was 18 (7.0%) of 257 for RSV, 18 (13.4%) of 134 for FluA, 25 (64.1%) of 39 for PIV1, 8 (88.9%) of 9 for PIV2, 17 (30.1%) of 55 for PIV3, and 101 (76.5%) of 132 for AdV. MPV was detected in 6.6% of all specimens and in 9.5% of the 702 specimens negative by FA. The mean number of virus copies per milliliter in specimens positive by both PCR and FA was significantly higher, at 6.7x10(7), than that in specimens positive only by PCR, at 4.1x10(4) (P<0.001). The PCR assays were significantly more sensitive than FA assays for detecting respiratory viruses, especially parainfluenza virus and adenovirus. Use of real-time PCR to identify viral respiratory pathogens in children will lead to improved diagnosis of respiratory illness.
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            Human rhinovirus and coronavirus detection among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

            Little is known about clinical and virologic manifestations of rhinovirus (HRV) and coronavirus (HCoV) infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We performed surveillance for 1 year and describe the natural history of these infections during the first 100 days after allogeneic HCT, when symptom surveys and upper respiratory samples were collected weekly. Samples were tested using RT-PCR for HRVs and HCoVs (OC43, 229E, HKU1, and NL63). Among 215 patients, 64 (30%) patients had 67 infections. Day 100 cumulative incidence estimate was 22.3% for HRV and 11.1% for HCoV. Median duration of viral shedding was 3 weeks; prolonged shedding of at least 3 months occurred in 6 of 45 patients with HRV and 3 of 22 with HCoV. Six patients with HRV and 9 with HCoV were asymptomatic. HRV infection was associated with rhinorrhea, congestion, postnasal drip, sputum, and cough; HCoV infection was not associated with respiratory symptoms or hepatic dysfunction. Lower respiratory infection developed in 2 patients with HRV before day 100, and 1 each with HRV and HCoV after day 100. HRV and HCoV infections are common in the first 100 days after HCT, viral shedding lasts more than 3 weeks in half, and lower respiratory infection is rare.
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              Evaluation of quantitative and type-specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory specimens from children

              Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract morbidity in young children and immunosuppressed patients. Objectives: To rapidly and accurately quantify and subtype RSV in respiratory samples, we developed and evaluated two real-time RT-PCR assays. Study design: A quantitative assay was designed using primers for a consensus region of the matrix protein gene and a subtype-specific assay for RSV-A and RSV-B detection was designed using primers for the polymerase gene. Quantitative RSV RT-PCR results of pediatric nasal wash samples submitted to the University of Washington Virology Laboratory from December 2002, through May 2003, were compared to those of an indirect fluorescent antibody RSV antigen detection assay (FA). Results: Specificity of the RT-PCR assay was high, with no amplification of eleven common respiratory viruses and eight herpes viruses. Among 751 samples, RSV was detected in 267 (35.6%) by FA and in 286 (38.1%) by RT-PCR. Median RSV copy number in nasal wash samples that were positive by both FA and RT-PCR was 2.5×107 copies/mL versus a median of 3.0×104 copies/mL for samples positive by RT-PCR only (P<0.001). The detection and quantity of RSV in respiratory specimens was associated with younger age, but not with gender or hospitalization. Among positive samples from this Seattle cohort, 52% were subtype A and 48% were subtype B. Both subtypes were detected with similar viral loads among all patient groups (stratified by age, gender, and hospitalization), and throughout the specimen collection period. Conclusions: These real-time RT-PCR assays provide a rapid, specific, and highly sensitive alternative for detecting, quantifying, and subtyping RSV in clinical specimens.

                Author and article information

                Emerg Infect Dis
                Emerging Infect. Dis
                Emerging Infectious Diseases
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                October 2012
                : 18
                : 10
                : 1580-1588
                [1]University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA (J. Kuypers, A.P. Campbell, N.L. Wright, J.A. Englund, L. Corey, M. Boeckh);
                [2]Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle (J. Kuypers, A.P. Campbell, K.A. Guthrie, J.A. Englund, L. Corey, M. Boeckh);
                [3]and Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle (A.P. Campbell, J.A. Englund)
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Jane Kuypers, Molecular Virology, University of Washington, 1616 Eastlake Ave E, Suite 320, Seattle, WA 98102, USA; email: kuypers@ 123456u.washington.edu

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                immunocompromised patients,viruses,wupyv,wu polyomavirus,ki polyomavirus,human polyomaviruses,hematopoietic cell transplant,respiratory samples,kipyv,respiratory viruses


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