5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Necrotizing retinitis due to syphilis in a patient with AIDS

      , MD a , * , , MD b

      IDCases

      Elsevier

      HIV, Retinitis, Syphilis

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The ocular manifestations of syphilis are varied. Ocular syphilis can occur during any stage of infection and involve virtually any part of the eye. In immunocompetent individuals, the most common etiologies include syphilitic uveitis. Although the clinical presentation of ocular syphilis in HIV-infected patients is also widespread, posterior segment involvement has been more commonly described particularly in patients with AIDS. The diagnosis of syphilitic retinitis is challenging since its clinical presentation mimics retinitis caused by other viral etiologies. In addition, HIV-infected individuals with syphilis are more likely to develop aberrant serologic responses. Recognition of syphilitic retinitis and prompt initiation of penicillin therapy is of critical importance since syphilitic retinitis generally responds well to treatment and loss of vision is reversible. In this report, we describe a 39-year-old female with advanced stages of AIDS who developed necrotizing retinitis due to syphilis. Prompt initiation of intravenous penicillin led to excellent visual outcome for this patient despite significantly decreased visual acuity on presentation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 24

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Syphilis and HIV: a dangerous combination.

          HIV and syphilis affect similar patient groups and co-infection is common. All patients presenting with syphilis should be offered HIV testing and all HIV-positive patients should be regularly screened for syphilis. Syphilis agent may enhance the transmission of the other, probably through increased incidence of genital ulcers. Detection and treatment of syphilis can, therefore, help to reduce HIV transmission. Syphilis may present with non-typical features in the HIV-positive patient: there is a higher rate of symptomless primary syphilis and proportionately more HIV-positive patients present with secondary disease. Secondary infection may be more aggressive and there is an increased rate of early neurological and ophthalmic involvement. Diagnosis is generally made with serology but the clinician should be aware of the potential for false-negative serology in both primary and, less commonly, in secondary syphilis. All HIV-positive patients should be treated with a penicillin-based regimen that is adequate for the treatment of neurosyphilis. Relapse of infection is more likely in the HIV-positive patient and careful follow-up is required.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Acute retinal necrosis: clinical features, early vitrectomy, and outcomes.

            To determine the viral diagnosis and the outcome of eyes with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) treated with intravenous acyclovir and oral prednisolone alone or combined with early vitrectomy and intravitreal acyclovir lavage. Nonrandomized, retrospective, interventional, comparative, consecutive series. A cohort of 27 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with ARN comprising 24 unilateral and 3 bilateral cases. Vitreous biopsy for viral diagnosis. Twenty eyes were treated with intravenous acyclovir in combination with oral prednisolone (group A). Ten eyes were treated additionally with early vitrectomy, intravitreal acyclovir lavage, laser demarcation of necrotic retinal areas when feasible-with or without scleral buckling, and gas or silicone oil tamponade (group B). Vitrectomy was performed in all cases of secondary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Results of vitreous biopsy, rate of RD, rate of phthisis bulbi, and course of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Varicella zoster virus (VZV) was detected in 26 eyes, followed by herpes simplex virus (5 eyes), and Epstein-Barr virus (2 eyes, in conjunction with VZV). An RD developed in more eyes in group A (18 of 20 eyes) than in group B (4 of 10 eyes; P = 0.007). In 2 of 20 eyes in group A and in 0 of 10 eyes in group B, phthisis bulbi developed without a significant difference between groups A and B. Mean BCVA (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) at first visit was 1.09 (standard deviation [SD], 0.83), and mean final BCVA was 1.46 (SD, 0.88) without significant difference between groups A and B. Varicella zoster virus is the leading cause of ARN. Visual prognosis is guarded. Early vitrectomy with intravitreal acyclovir lavage was associated with a lower incidence of secondary RD; however, it did not improve mean final visual acuity.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Ocular syphilis among HIV-infected patients: a systematic analysis of the literature.

              Ocular syphilis among HIV-infected patients continues to be a problem in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. However, outside of case reports or small case series, little is known about the clinical, laboratory, and treatment outcomes of these patients. Objective To examine the literature on HIV-infected patients and determine the results of treatment. Systematic review of cases series and case reports among HIV-infected individuals with ocular syphilis. Reviews, languages other than English and pre-1980 reports were excluded. The effect of CD4 count and virological suppression on clinical manifestations and diagnostic laboratory values was evaluated. A total of 101 HIV-infected individuals in case series and case reports were identified. Ocular syphilis led to the HIV diagnosis in 52% of cases, including patients with CD4 count >200 cells/mm(3). Posterior uveitis was significantly more common in individuals with CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3) (p = 0.002). Three patients with confirmed ocular syphilis had negative non-treponemal tests. Ninety-seven per cent of patients with visual impairment improved following intravenous penicillin or ceftriaxone. Non-treponemal tests may be negative in HIV-infected patients with ocular syphilis. Ocular syphilis remains an important clinical manifestation that can lead to initial HIV diagnosis.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                IDCases
                IDCases
                IDCases
                Elsevier
                2214-2509
                21 August 2016
                2016
                21 August 2016
                : 6
                : 17-19
                Affiliations
                [a ]Vanderbilt University Medical Center, United States
                [b ]Indiana University Department of Medicine, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. AIDSshinha_takashi@ 123456yahoo.co.jp
                Article
                S2214-2509(16)30068-3
                10.1016/j.idcr.2016.08.005
                5021766
                © 2016 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Case Report

                hiv, retinitis, syphilis

                Comments

                Comment on this article