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      Ecophysiology. Climate change tightens a metabolic constraint on marine habitats.

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          Abstract

          Warming of the oceans and consequent loss of dissolved oxygen (O2) will alter marine ecosystems, but a mechanistic framework to predict the impact of multiple stressors on viable habitat is lacking. Here, we integrate physiological, climatic, and biogeographic data to calibrate and then map a key metabolic index-the ratio of O2 supply to resting metabolic O2 demand-across geographic ranges of several marine ectotherms. These species differ in thermal and hypoxic tolerances, but their contemporary distributions are all bounded at the equatorward edge by a minimum metabolic index of ~2 to 5, indicative of a critical energetic requirement for organismal activity. The combined effects of warming and O2 loss this century are projected to reduce the upper ocean's metabolic index by ~20% globally and by ~50% in northern high-latitude regions, forcing poleward and vertical contraction of metabolically viable habitats and species ranges.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Science
          Science (New York, N.Y.)
          1095-9203
          0036-8075
          Jun 5 2015
          : 348
          : 6239
          Affiliations
          [1 ] School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. cdeutsch@uw.edu.
          [2 ] Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
          [3 ] Biological Sciences Department, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.
          [4 ] Alfred Wegener Institute, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.
          [5 ] Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.
          Article
          348/6239/1132
          10.1126/science.aaa1605
          26045435
          3f8ccca3-9e48-4021-b59a-4cf38f37fae4
          Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
          History

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