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      Ferroptosis as a p53-mediated activity during tumour suppression

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      Springer Nature

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          TIGAR, a p53-Inducible Regulator of Glycolysis and Apoptosis

          The p53 tumor-suppressor protein prevents cancer development through various mechanisms, including the induction of cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the maintenance of genome stability. We have identified a p53-inducible gene named TIGAR (TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator). TIGAR expression lowered fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels in cells, resulting in an inhibition of glycolysis and an overall decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. These functions of TIGAR correlated with an ability to protect cells from ROS-associated apoptosis, and consequently, knockdown of endogenous TIGAR expression sensitized cells to p53-induced death. Expression of TIGAR may therefore modulate the apoptotic response to p53, allowing survival in the face of mild or transient stress signals that may be reversed or repaired. The decrease of intracellular ROS levels in response to TIGAR may also play a role in the ability of p53 to protect from the accumulation of genomic damage.
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            Tumor suppression in the absence of p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence.

            Cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence are widely accepted as the major mechanisms by which p53 inhibits tumor formation. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether they are the rate-limiting steps in tumor suppression. Here, we have generated mice bearing lysine to arginine mutations at one (p53(K117R)) or three (p53(3KR); K117R+K161R+K162R) of p53 acetylation sites. Although p53(K117R/K117R) cells are competent for p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest and senescence, but not apoptosis, all three of these processes are ablated in p53(3KR/3KR) cells. Surprisingly, unlike p53 null mice, which rapidly succumb to spontaneous thymic lymphomas, early-onset tumor formation does not occur in either p53(K117R/K117R) or p53(3KR/3KR) animals. Notably, p53(3KR) retains the ability to regulate energy metabolism and reactive oxygen species production. These findings underscore the crucial role of acetylation in differentially modulating p53 responses and suggest that unconventional activities of p53, such as metabolic regulation and antioxidant function, are critical for suppression of early-onset spontaneous tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Glutaminase 2, a novel p53 target gene regulating energy metabolism and antioxidant function.

              Whereas cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence are traditionally thought of as the major functions of the tumor suppressor p53, recent studies revealed two unique functions for this protein: p53 regulates cellular energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Here, we identify glutaminase 2 (GLS2) as a previously uncharacterized p53 target gene to mediate these two functions of the p53 protein. GLS2 encodes a mitochondrial glutaminase catalyzing the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate. p53 increases the GLS2 expression under both nonstressed and stressed conditions. GLS2 regulates cellular energy metabolism by increasing production of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, which in turn results in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and ATP generation. Furthermore, GLS2 regulates antioxidant defense function in cells by increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and decreasing ROS levels, which in turn protects cells from oxidative stress (e.g., H(2)O(2))-induced apoptosis. Consistent with these functions of GLS2, the activation of p53 increases the levels of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, mitochondrial respiration rate, and GSH levels and decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells. Furthermore, GLS2 expression is lost or greatly decreased in hepatocellular carcinomas and the overexpression of GLS2 greatly reduced tumor cell colony formation. These results demonstrated that as a unique p53 target gene, GLS2 is a mediator of p53's role in energy metabolism and antioxidant defense, which can contribute to its role in tumor suppression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/nature14344
                25799988
                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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