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      COPD in patients with stable heart failure in the primary care setting

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          Abstract

          Background

          Presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heart failure (HF) has prognostic and therapeutic implications. Exact prevalence estimates are lacking because most previous studies estimated the prevalence of COPD among HF patients while unstable and in the presence of pulmonary congestion.

          Methods

          Community-dwelling patients with an established diagnosis of HF and in a stable phase of their disease were invited for spirometry. COPD was defined according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification and considered present if the ratio of the post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity was below 0.7.

          Results

          Thirty of the 106 patients with HF (mean age 76 [standard deviation] 11.9 years, 57% male) had COPD (prevalence 28.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.7%–36.9%]), with similar rates among those with HF and a reduced ejection fraction (18 individuals; prevalence 28.6% [95% CI 20.0%–37.2%]) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (12 individuals; prevalence 27.9% [95% CI 19.4–36.4]). Twenty-one (70%) of the 30 participants were newly detected cases of COPD.

          Conclusion

          More than a quarter of the patients with HF concomitantly have COPD, with the large majority being previously unrecognized. Coexistence of COPD should be considered more often in these patients.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Unrecognized heart failure in elderly patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          To establish the prevalence of unrecognized heart failure in elderly patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in a stable phase of their disease. In a cross-sectional study, patients >/=65 years of age, classified as having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by their general practitioner and not known with a cardiologist-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure, were invited to our out-patient clinic. Four hundred and five participants underwent an extensive diagnostic work-up, including medical history and physical examination, followed by chest radiography, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and pulmonary function tests. As reference (i.e. 'gold') standard the consensus opinion of an expert panel was used. The panel based the diagnosis of heart failure on all available results from the diagnostic assessment, guided by the diagnostic principles of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) for heart failure (i.e., symptoms and echocardiographic systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction). The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was based on the diagnostic criteria of the Global Initiative (GOLD) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Of 405 participating patients with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 83 (20.5%, 95% CI 16.7-24.8) had previously unrecognized heart failure (42 patients systolic, 41 'isolated' diastolic, and none right-sided heart failure). In total, 244 (60.2%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the GOLD criteria and 50 (20.5%, 95% CI 15.6-26.1) patients combined with unrecognized heart failure. Unrecognized heart failure is very common in elderly patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Closer co-operation among general practitioners, pulmonologists, and cardiologists is necessary to improve detection and adequate treatment of heart failure in this large patient population.
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            Heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: diagnostic pitfalls and epidemiology.

            Heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are global epidemics incurring significant morbidity and mortality. The combination presents many diagnostic challenges. Clinical symptoms and signs frequently overlap. Evaluation of cardiac and pulmonary function is often problematic and occasionally misleading. Echocardiography and pulmonary function tests should be performed in every patient. Careful interpretation is required to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Airflow obstruction, in particular, must be demonstrated when clinically euvolaemic. Very high and very low concentrations of natriuretic peptides have high positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing HF in those with both conditions. Intermediate values are less informative. Both conditions are systemic disorders with overlapping pathophysiological processes. In patients with HF, COPD is consistently an independent predictor of death and hospitalization. However, the impact on ischaemic and arrhythmic events is unknown. Greater collaboration is required between cardiologists and pulmonologists to better identify and manage concurrent HF and COPD. The resulting symptomatic and prognostic benefits outweigh those attainable by treating either condition alone.
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              High prevalence of previously unknown heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes

              Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of (unknown) heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in older patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods In total, 605 patients aged 60 years or over with type 2 diabetes in the south west of the Netherlands participated in this cross-sectional study (response rate 48.7%), including 24 with a cardiologist-confirmed diagnosis of heart failure. Between February 2009 and March 2010, the patients without known heart failure underwent a standardised diagnostic work-up, including medical history, physical examination, ECG and echocardiography. An expert panel used the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology to diagnose heart failure. Results Of the 581 patients studied, 161 (27.7%; 95% CI 24.1%, 31.4%) were found to have previously unknown heart failure: 28 (4.8%; 95% CI 3.1%, 6.6%) with reduced ejection fraction, and 133 (22.9%; 95% CI 19.5%, 26.3%) with preserved ejection fraction. The prevalence of heart failure increased steeply with age. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was more common in women. Left ventricular dysfunction was diagnosed in 150 patients (25.8%; 95% CI 22.3%, 29.4%); 146 (25.1%; 95% CI 21.6%, 28.7%) had diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions/interpretation This is the first epidemiological study that provides exact prevalence estimates of (previously unknown) heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction in a representative sample of patients with type 2 diabetes. Previously unknown heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction are highly prevalent. Physicians should pay special attention to ‘unmasking’ these patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2015
                26 June 2015
                : 10
                : 1219-1224
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Amersfoort, the Netherlands
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort, the Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mark J Valk, University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Stratenum 6.138, PO Box 85500, 3508 AB Utrecht, the Netherlands, Tel +31 65 131 1485, Fax +31 33 465 3491, Email m.j.m.valk-7@ 123456umcutrecht.nl
                Article
                copd-10-1219
                10.2147/COPD.S77085
                4492658
                © 2015 Valk et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                heart failure, copd, prevalence, comorbidity, spirometry, diagnosis, primary care

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