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      Mortality Rates of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipients


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          Human metapneumovirus (HMPV), a common respiratory virus, can cause severe disease in pre- and post-hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis in HCT patients with HMPV (n = 23) or respiratory syncytial virus (n = 23) detected in bronchoalveolar lavage samples by reverse transcription PCR between 2006 and 2011 to determine disease characteristics and factors associated with outcome. Mortality rates at 100 days were 43% for both HMPV and respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease. Steroid therapy, oxygen requirement >2 L or mechanical ventilation, and bone marrow as cell source were significant risk factors for overall and virus-related mortality in multivariable models, whereas the virus type was not. The presence of centrilobular/nodular radiographic infiltrates was a possible protective factor for mechanical ventilation. Thus, HMPV lower respiratory tract disease is associated with high mortality in HCT recipients. Earlier detection in combination with new antiviral therapy is needed to reduce mortality among HCT recipients.

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          Comparison of real-time PCR assays with fluorescent-antibody assays for diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in children.

          Conventional fluorescent-antibody (FA) methods were compared to real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus type A (FluA), parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3 (PIV1, PIV2, and PIV3), human metapneumovirus (MPV), and adenovirus (AdV) in 1,138 specimens from children with respiratory illnesses collected over a 1-year period. At least one virus was detected in 436 (38.3%) specimens by FA and in 608 (53.4%) specimens by PCR (P<0.001). Specimen quality was inadequate for FA in 52 (4.6%) specimens; 13 of these (25%) were positive by PCR. In contrast, 18 (1.6%) specimens could not be analyzed by PCR; 1 of these was positive by FA. The number of specimens positive only by PCR among specimens positive by PCR and/or FA was 18 (7.0%) of 257 for RSV, 18 (13.4%) of 134 for FluA, 25 (64.1%) of 39 for PIV1, 8 (88.9%) of 9 for PIV2, 17 (30.1%) of 55 for PIV3, and 101 (76.5%) of 132 for AdV. MPV was detected in 6.6% of all specimens and in 9.5% of the 702 specimens negative by FA. The mean number of virus copies per milliliter in specimens positive by both PCR and FA was significantly higher, at 6.7x10(7), than that in specimens positive only by PCR, at 4.1x10(4) (P<0.001). The PCR assays were significantly more sensitive than FA assays for detecting respiratory viruses, especially parainfluenza virus and adenovirus. Use of real-time PCR to identify viral respiratory pathogens in children will lead to improved diagnosis of respiratory illness.
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            Respiratory virus infections after stem cell transplantation: a prospective study from the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

            Community-acquired respiratory virus infections are a cause of mortality after stem cell transplantation (SCT). A prospective study was performed at 37 centers to determine their frequency and importance. Additional cases were also collected to allow the analysis of risk factors for severe infection. Forty episodes were collected in the prospective study and 53 additional episodes through subsequent case collection. The frequency of documented respiratory virus infections was 3.5% among 819 allogeneic and 0.4% among 1154 autologous SCT patients transplanted during the study period. The frequency of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) was 2.1% among allogeneic and 0.2% among autologous SCT patients. The mortality within 28 days from diagnosis of a respiratory viral infection was 1.1% among allogeneic SCT while no autologous SCT patient died. The deaths of five patients (0.6%) were directly attributed to a respiratory virus infection (three RSV; two influenza A). On multivariate analysis, lymphocytopenia increased the risk for LRTI (P = 0.008). Lymphocytopenia was also a significant risk factor for LRTI in patients with RSV infections. The overall mortality in RSV infection was 30.4% and the direct RSV-associated mortality was 17.4%. For influenza A virus infection, the corresponding percentages were 23.0% and 15.3%. This prospective study supports the fact that community-acquired respiratory virus infections cause transplant-related mortality after SCT.
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              Management of RSV infections in adult recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

              Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common cause of seasonal respiratory viral infection in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. RSV usually presents as an upper respiratory tract infection in this patient population but may progress rapidly to lower respiratory tract infection. Available therapies that have been used for the treatment of RSV infections are limited to ribavirin, intravenous immunoglobulin, and palivizumab. The use of aerosolized ribavirin, alone or in combination with either palivizumab or intravenous immunoglobulin, remains controversial. In this comprehensive review, we present and discuss the available literature on management of RSV infections in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients with a focus on therapeutic modalities and outcomes.

                Author and article information

                Biol Blood Marrow Transplant
                Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant
                Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
                American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
                13 May 2013
                August 2013
                13 May 2013
                : 19
                : 8
                : 1220-1226
                [1 ]Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington
                [2 ]Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington
                [3 ]University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
                Author notes
                []Correspondence and reprint requests: Michael Boeckh, MD, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Infectious Disease Sciences, 1100 Fairview Ave. North, P.O. Box 19024, D3-100, Seattle, WA 98109-1024. mboeckh@ 123456fhcrc.org
                Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 18 March 2013
                : 6 May 2013

                human metapneumovirus,respiratory syncytial virus,immunocompromised,hematopoietic stem cell transplant,pneumonia


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