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      Transcription Factor Ets-1 Regulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-1-Mediated Angiogenesis in vivo: Role of Ets-1 in the Regulation of the PI3K/AKT/MMP-1 Pathway

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          Abstract

          We previously demonstrated that a modified secreted form of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1), a prototypic member of the FGF family, has the ability to stimulate angiogenesis in an in vivo model of angiogenesis, the so-called chick chorioallantoic membrane assay or CAM. We recently defined the importance of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in FGF-1-mediated angiogenesis in this model using specific pharmacological inhibitors. In our continuing efforts to define the molecular signaling pathway regulating FGF-1-induced angiogenesis in vivo, we utilized a transcription factor activity assay and identified transcription factor Ets-1 as a critical effector of FGF-1-induced angiogenesis. Both activity and mRNA expression levels of the Ets-1 molecule were increased in response to FGF-1 overexpression in CAMs, as documented by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (gel shift) and reverse transcription real-time PCR techniques, respectively. Furthermore, the delivery of Ets-1 antisense (AS) into CAM tissues effectively reduced angiogenesis in the CAM assay. In addition, both Ets-1 AS-treated chicken CAMs and cultured endothelial cells exhibited a reduction in matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene expression levels. The Ets-1 AS-treated endothelial cells also demonstrated a reduction in migration. These data suggest that Ets-1 activation is a requisite for FGF-1-mediated angiogenesis in vivo. Therefore, Ets-1 might be a potential target for the generation of inhibitor drugs for the treatment of FGF-dependent pathological angiogenesis such as metastatic tumors, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic retinopathy.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Accessing genetic information with high-density DNA arrays.

          Rapid access to genetic information is central to the revolution taking place in molecular genetics. The simultaneous analysis of the entire human mitochondrial genome is described here. DNA arrays containing up to 135,000 probes complementary to the 16.6-kilobase human mitochondrial genome were generated by light-directed chemical synthesis. A two-color labeling scheme was developed that allows simultaneous comparison of a polymorphic target to a reference DNA or RNA. Complete hybridization patterns were revealed in a matter of minutes. Sequence polymorphisms were detected with single-base resolution and unprecedented efficiency. The methods described are generic and can be used to address a variety of questions in molecular genetics including gene expression, genetic linkage, and genetic variability.
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            An oncogene isolated by transfection of Kaposi's sarcoma DNA encodes a growth factor that is a member of the FGF family.

            We recently reported the cloning of a rearranged human oncogene following transfection of DNA from Kaposi's sarcoma into NIH 3T3 cells. To identify the protein(s) encoded in two novel mRNAs of 3.5 and 1.2 kb expressed in NIH 3T3 transformants, we constructed a cDNA library. One of the cDNA clones isolated (KS3) corresponded to the 1.2 kb mRNA and transformed NIH 3T3 cell when inserted into a mammalian expression vector. The 1152 nucleotide KS3 cDNA encodes a protein of 206 amino acids with significant homology to the growth factors basic FGF and acidic FGF. Expression of the KS3 product as a bacterial fusion protein or in COS cells allowed us to determine that both proteins had significant growth-promoting activity and that the COS cell protein was glycosylated. Thus one of the mRNAs transcribed from the KS oncogene encodes a growth factor that could transform cells by an autocrine mechanism and appears to represent a new member of the FGF family.
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              ETS-1 converts endothelial cells to the angiogenic phenotype by inducing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and integrin beta3.

              The transcription factor ETS-1 is induced in endothelial cells (ECs) by angiogenic growth factors and the specific elimination of ETS-1 synthesis by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibited angiogenesis in vitro (Iwasaka et al., 1996, J Cell Physiol 169:522-531). To understand the precise role of ETS-1 in angiogenesis, we established both high and low ETS-1 expression EC lines and compared angiogenic properties of these cell lines with those of the parental murine EC line, MSS-31. Although growth rate was almost identical for each cell line, the invasiveness was markedly enhanced in high ETS-1 expression cells and reduced in low ETS-1 expression cells compared with that of parental cells. The gene expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9) and gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 were significantly increased in high ETS-1 expression cells. Low ETS-1 expression cells could not spread on a vitronectin substratum, and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase was markedly impaired because of the reduced expression of integrin beta3. These results indicate that ETS-1 is a principal regulator that converts ECs to the angiogenic phenotype.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2006
                July 2006
                28 July 2006
                : 43
                : 4
                : 327-337
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medical Physiology and Cardiovascular Research Institute, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University System Health Science Center, Departments of bPoultry Sciences and cVeterinary Anatomy and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Tex., and dDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, S.C., USA
                Article
                93198 J Vasc Res 2006;43:327–337
                10.1159/000093198
                16682805
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 45, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Paper

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