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      A label-free immunosensor for the detection of a new lung cancer biomarker, GM2 activator protein, using a phosphomolybdic acid/polyethyleneimine coated gold nanoparticle composite

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          A novel electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of a new lung cancer biomarker based on a polyoxometalate-adsorbed poly(ethylenimine)-coated gold nanoparticle modified electrode.


          In this work, we report, for the first time, the construction of a label-free electrochemical immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of a new lung cancer biomarker, GM2 activator protein (GM2AP). A polyethyleneimine-coated gold nanoparticle (PEI-AuNP) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) modified electrode is developed as a novel redox platform for GM2AP detection. A PEI-AuNP film-modified screen-printed carbon electrode, as a signal amplifier support, was successfully fabricated for the adsorption of PMA redox molecules and is used for signal amplification. Under the optimized conditions, GM2AP detection is based on a decrease in the current response of PMA redox probes proportionally relative to an amount of the immunocomplex. Our sensor exhibits two linear ranges of 0.005–25 and 25–400 ng mL −1 with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.51 pg mL −1. The immunosensor is successfully applied for the determination of GM2AP in both human urine and serum samples. The proposed sensor offers the advantages of simple fabrication, low cost, rapid analysis, satisfactory stability, high selectivity and sensitivity, and good reproducibility. The LOD of the biosensor is approximately 2863 and 1804 fold lower than the clinically relevant levels in human urine and serum, respectively. Our strategy can be used as an alternative non-invasive clinical analysis method for lung cancer screening.

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          Most cited references37

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          Smoking and lung cancer: the role of inflammation.

          Worldwide over 1 million people die due to lung cancer each year. It is estimated that cigarette smoking explains almost 90% of lung cancer risk in men and 70 to 80% in women. Clinically evident lung cancers have multiple genetic and epigenetic abnormalities. These abnormalities may result in activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes. Chronic inflammation, which is known to promote cancer, may result both from smoking and from genetic abnormalities. These mediators in turn may be responsible for increased macrophage recruitment, delayed neutrophil clearance, and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, the pulmonary environment presents a unique milieu in which lung carcinogenesis proceeds in complicity with the host cellular network. The pulmonary diseases that are associated with the greatest risk for lung cancer are characterized by abundant and deregulated inflammation. Pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/emphysema are characterized by profound abnormalities in inflammatory and fibrotic pathways. The cytokines and growth factors aberrantly produced in COPD and the developing tumor microenvironment have been found to have deleterious properties that simultaneously pave the way for both epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and destruction of specific host cell-mediated immune responses. Full definition of these pathways will afford the opportunity to intervene in specific inflammatory events mediating lung tumorigenesis and resistance to therapy.
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            Gold nanoparticles capped with polyethyleneimine for enhanced siRNA delivery.

            An efficient and safe delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA) is required for clinical application of RNA interfering therapeutics. Polyethyleneimine (PEI)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are successfully manufactured using PEI as the reductant and stabilizer, which bind siRNA at an appropriate weight ratio by electrostatic interaction and result in well-dispersed nanoparticles with uniform structure and narrow size distribution. With siRNA binding, PEI-capped AuNPs induce more significant and enhanced reduction in targeted green fluorescent protein expression in MDA-MB-435s cells, though more internalized PEI/siRNA complexes in cells are evidenced by confocal laser scanning microscopy observation and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. PEI-capped AuNPs/siRNA targeting endogenous cell-cycle kinase, an oncogene polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), display significant gene expression knockdown and induce enhanced cell apoptosis, whereas it is not obvious when the cells are treated with PLK1 siRNA using PEI as the carrier. Without exhibiting cellular toxicity, PEI-capped AuNPs appear to be suitable as a potential carrier for intracellular siRNA delivery.
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              A paper-based electrochemical immunosensor with reduced graphene oxide/thionine/gold nanoparticles nanocomposites modification for the detection of cancer antigen 125


                Author and article information

                (View ORCID Profile)
                The Analyst
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                April 6 2021
                : 146
                : 7
                : 2203-2211
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry
                [2 ]Faculty of Science
                [3 ]Chiang Mai University
                [4 ]Chiang Mai 50200
                [5 ]Thailand
                © 2021




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