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      Exploring the taxonomic composition of two fungal communities on the Swedish west coast through metabarcoding

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          Fungi are heterotrophic, unicellular or filamentous organisms that exhibit a wide range of different lifestyles as, e.g., symbionts, parasites, and saprotrophs. Mycologists have traditionally considered fungi to be a nearly exclusively terrestrial group of organisms, but it is now known that fungi have a significant presence in aquatic environments as well. We know little about most fungi in limnic and marine systems, including aspects of their taxonomy, ecology, and geographic distribution. The present study seeks to improve our knowledge of fungi in the marine environment. The fungal communities of two coastal marine environments of the Kattegat sea, Sweden, were explored with metabarcoding techniques using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) metabarcode. Our data add new information to the current picture of fungal community composition in benthic and coastal habitats in Northern Europe.

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          The dataset describes the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and their taxonomic affiliations in two littoral gradients sampled on the Swedish west coast, Gothenburg municipality. Our data include basic diversity indices as well as chemical and edaphic sediment/soil parameters of the sampling sites. From the sites, 3470 and 4315 fungal OTUs, respectively, were recovered. The number of reads were 673,711 and 779,899, respectively, after quality filtering. Within the benthic sites, more than 80% of the sequences could not be classified taxonomically. The phylum composition of the classifiable sequences was dominated in both localities by Dikarya , which made up around 33% of the OTUs. Within Dikarya , Ascomycota was the dominant phylum. Guild assignment failed for more than half of the classifiable OTUs, with undefined saprotrophs being the most common resolved guild. This guild classification was slightly more common in the ocean sediment samples than in the terrestrial ones. Our metadata indicated that ocean sites contain organisms at a lower trophic level and that there are predominantly endophytic, parasitic, and pathogenic fungi in the marine environments. This hints at the presence of interesting and currently poorly understood fungus-driven ecological processes. It is also clear from our results that a very large number of marine fungi are in urgent need of taxonomic study and formal description.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon.

          Soils contain the largest near-surface reservoir of terrestrial carbon and so knowledge of the factors controlling soil carbon storage and turnover is essential for understanding the changing global carbon cycle. The influence of climate on decomposition of soil carbon has been well documented, but there remains considerable uncertainty in the potential response of soil carbon dynamics to the rapid global increase in reactive nitrogen (coming largely from agricultural fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion). Here, using 14C, 13C and compound-specific analyses of soil carbon from long-term nitrogen fertilization plots, we show that nitrogen additions significantly accelerate decomposition of light soil carbon fractions (with decadal turnover times) while further stabilizing soil carbon compounds in heavier, mineral-associated fractions (with multidecadal to century lifetimes). Despite these changes in the dynamics of different soil pools, we observed no significant changes in bulk soil carbon, highlighting a limitation inherent to the still widely used single-pool approach to investigating soil carbon responses to changing environmental conditions. It remains to be seen if the effects observed here-caused by relatively high, short-term fertilizer additions-are similar to those arising from lower, long-term additions of nitrogen to natural ecosystems from atmospheric deposition, but our results suggest nonetheless that current models of terrestrial carbon cycling do not contain the mechanisms needed to capture the complex relationship between nitrogen availability and soil carbon storage.
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            Fungal Diversity Revisited: 2.2 to 3.8 Million Species.

            The question of how many species of Fungi there are has occasioned much speculation, with figures mostly posited from around half a million to 10 million, and in one extreme case even a sizable portion of the spectacular number of 1 trillion. Here we examine new evidence from various sources to derive an updated estimate of global fungal diversity. The rates and patterns in the description of new species from the 1750s show no sign of approaching an asymptote and even accelerated in the 2010s after the advent of molecular approaches to species delimitation. Species recognition studies of (semi-)cryptic species hidden in morpho-species complexes suggest a weighted average ratio of about an order of magnitude for the number of species recognized after and before such studies. New evidence also comes from extrapolations of plant:fungus ratios, with information now being generated from environmental sequence studies, including comparisons of molecular and fieldwork data from the same sites. We further draw attention to undescribed species awaiting discovery in biodiversity hot spots in the tropics, little-explored habitats (such as lichen-inhabiting fungi), and material in collections awaiting study. We conclude that the commonly cited estimate of 1.5 million species is conservative and that the actual range is properly estimated at 2.2 to 3.8 million. With 120,000 currently accepted species, it appears that at best just 8%, and in the worst case scenario just 3%, are named so far. Improved estimates hinge particularly on reliable statistical and phylogenetic approaches to analyze the rapidly increasing amount of environmental sequence data.
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              Nomenclature for incompletely specified bases in nucleic acid sequences: recommendations 1984.

               Julie Cornish (1985)

                Author and article information

                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                04 September 2019
                : 7
                [1 ] University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria University of Vienna Vienna Austria
                [2 ] University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden University of Gothenburg Göteborg Sweden
                [3 ] Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre Gothenburg Sweden
                [4 ] Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig Bonn Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Alice Retter ( alice.retter@ 123456univie.ac.at ).

                Academic editor: Alfredo Vizzini

                35332 10752
                Alice Retter, R. Henrik Nilsson, Sarah J. Bourlat

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 19, Tables: 5, References: 65
                Data Paper (Biosciences)
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Ecology & Environmental sciences
                Aquatic biology


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