The spatial relationship between renal perfusion and nephronal structure was determined in 51 nephrotic patients consisting of 11 patients with steroid sensitive, minimal change (MC) nephrosis, 12 patients with steroid resistant, mesangial proliferative (MesP) nephrosis and without tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF), 11 patients with steroid resistant, MesP nephrosis and with low grade TIF and 17 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The intrarenal hemodynamic study revealed a unique correlation between renal perfusion and nephronal structure. A normal or slight reduction in peritubular capillary flow observed in MC or mild MesP nephrosis correlates with an intact tubulointerstitial structure. A moderate reduction in peritubular capillary flow observed in steroid resistant, MesP nephrosis induces a low incidence of TIF. A severe reduction in peritubular capillary flow denotes a higher incidence of TIF as that observed in nephrosis with FSGS. Thus, it is of notion that the reduction in renal perfusion precedes the development of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and thereby supports the concept of renal perfusion as a crucial determinant of nephronal structure.