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      Online social networking addiction and depression: The results from a large-scale prospective cohort study in Chinese adolescents

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          The aim of this study is to estimate the longitudinal associations between online social networking addiction (OSNA) and depression, whether OSNA predicts development of depression, and reversely, whether depression predicts development of OSNA.

          Methods

          A total of 5,365 students from nine secondary schools in Guangzhou, Southern China were surveyed at baseline in March 2014, and followed up 9 months later. Level of OSNA and depression were measured using the validated OSNA scale and CES-D, respectively. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to estimate the longitudinal associations between OSNA and depression.

          Results

          Adolescents who were depressed but free of OSNA at baseline had 1.48 times more likely to develop OSNA at follow-up compared with those non-depressed at baseline [adjusted OR (AOR): 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14–1.93]. In addition, compared with those who were not depressed during the follow-up period, adolescents who were persistently depressed or emerging depressed during the follow-up period had increased risk of developing OSNA at follow-up (AOR: 3.45, 95% CI: 2.51–4.75 for persistent depression; AOR: 4.47, 95% CI: 3.33–5.99 for emerging depression). Reversely, among those without depression at baseline, adolescents who were classified as persistent OSNA or emerging OSNA had higher risk of developing depression compared with those who were no OSNA (AOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.01–2.69 for persistent OSNA; AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 3.17–5.81 for emerging OSNA).

          Conclusion

          The findings indicate a bidirectional association between OSNA and depression, meaning that addictive online social networking use is accompanied by increased level of depressive symptoms.

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          Most cited references 44

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          A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use

           R.A. Davis (2001)
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            Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being?

            The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants' communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy and for the design of technology.
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              The Relationship Between Depression and Internet Addiction

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                10 September 2018
                September 2018
                : 7
                : 3
                : 686-696
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Clinical Research, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, China
                [ 2 ]Centre for Health Behaviours Research, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [ 3 ]Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Shenzhen, China
                [ 4 ]Clinical Research Unit, Xin Hua Hospital – Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China
                [ 5 ]Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, University of Macau , Macao, China
                [ 6 ]Department of Psychological Health Research, Center for Health Promotion of Primary and Secondary School of Guangzhou , Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors: Ji-Bin Li, MD, PhD; Department of Clinical Research, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, No. 651, Dong Feng East Road, Guangzhou 510060, China; Phone: +86 20 8734 3553; Fax: +86 20 8734 3535; E-mail: lijib@ 123456sysucc.org.cn ; Joseph T. F. Lau, PhD, Professor; Centre for Health Behaviours Research, The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong, China; Phone: +852 2637 6606; Fax: +852 2645 3098; E-mail: jlau@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk
                Article
                10.1556/2006.7.2018.69
                6426399
                30203664
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 11
                Funding
                Funding sources: The study was supported by National Science Foundation of China (no.: 81373021), and by the Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care Research Postgraduate Students’ Research Grants and CUHK Research Postgraduate Student Grants for Overseas Academic Activities in the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
                Categories
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