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      Total Parathyroidectomy with Subcutaneous Parathyroid Forearm Autotransplantation in the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Single-Center Experience

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          Secondary hyperparathyroidism is common in chronic kidney disease. Parathyroidectomy is indicated in refractory hyperparathyroidism when medical treatments and so the parathyroid hormone levels cannot be lowered to acceptable values without causing significant hyperphosphatemia or hypercalcemia. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of total parathyroidectomy with subcutaneous forearm autotransplantation with total parathyroidectomy with intramuscular forearm autotransplantation.

          Materials and Methods

          A single-center retrospective cohort study of total parathyroidectomy with forearm autotransplantation from January 2002 to February 2013 was performed. According to the surgical technique, patients were divided into an intramuscular group (Group 1) and a subcutaneous group (Group 2). 38 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism were enrolled; 23 patients were subjected to total parathyroidectomy with parathyroid tissue replanting in the subcutaneous forearm of the upper nondominant limb, while 15 patients were subjected to replanting in the intramuscular seat.


          A total of 38 patients (56 ± 13 years) were enrolled. In both groups, the preoperative iPTH value was markedly high, 1750 ± 619 pg/ml in the intramuscular autotransplantation group and 1527 ± 451 pg/ml in the subcutaneous autotransplantation group ( p = 0.079). Transient hypoparathyroidism was shown in 7 patients, and 1 patient showed persistent hypoparathyroidism ( p = 0.387). 2 patients showed persistent hyperparathyroidism ( p = 0.816), and in 2 others was found recurrent hyperparathyroidism ( p = 0.816); 3 of them underwent autograftectomy. The anterior compartment of the forearm nondominant limb was sacrificed in 1 case of intramuscular autotransplantation with functional arm deficit.


          The efficacy and safety of parathyroid tissue autotransplantation in the subcutaneous forearm of the upper nondominant limb is confirmed with a good rate of tissue engraftment and with a comparable number of postsurgical transient and persistent hypoparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism incidence in both techniques. Furthermore, this technique preserves arm functionality in the case of autograftectomy. Consequently, it is our opinion that total parathyroidectomy with subcutaneous forearm autotransplantation is currently the best choice.

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          Most cited references 40

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          KDOQI US commentary on the 2009 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD).

          This commentary provides a US perspective on the 2009 KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). KDIGO is an independent international organization with the primary mission of the promotion, coordination, collaboration, and integration of initiatives to develop and implement clinical practice guidelines for the care of patients with kidney disease. The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI), recognizing that international guidelines need to be adapted for each country, convened a group of experts to comment on the application and implementation of the KDIGO guideline for patients with CKD in the United States. This commentary puts the KDIGO guideline into the context of the supporting evidence and the setting of care delivered in the United States and summarizes important differences between prior KDOQI guidelines and the newer KDIGO guideline. It also considers the potential impact of a new bundled payment system for dialysis clinics. The KDIGO guideline addresses the evaluation and treatment of abnormalities of CKD-MBD in adults and children with CKD stages 3-5 on long-term dialysis therapy or with a kidney transplant. Tests considered are those that relate to laboratory, bone, and cardiovascular abnormality detection and monitoring. Treatments considered are interventions to treat hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and bone disease in patients with CKD stages 3-5D and 1-5T. Limitations of the evidence are discussed. The lack of definitive clinical outcome trials explains why most recommendations are not of level 1 but of level 2 strength, which means weak or discretionary recommendations. Suggestions for future research highlight priority areas. Copyright 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease--a consensus report of the European Society of Endocrine Surgeons.

            Despite advances in the medical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic renal failure and dialysis (renal hyperparathyroidism), parathyroid surgery remains an important treatment option in the spectrum of the disease. Patients with severe and complicated renal hyperparathyroidism (HPT), refractory or intolerant to medical therapy and patients with specific requirements in prospect of or excluded from renal transplantation may require parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism.
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              The surgical management of renal hyperparathyroidism.

              Secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) develop in patients with renal failure due to a variety of mechanisms including increased phosphorus and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and decreased calcium and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels. Patients present with various bone disorders, cardiovascular disease, and typical laboratory abnormalities. Medical treatment consists of controlling hyperphosphatemia, vitamin D/analog and calcium administration, and calcimimetic agents. Improved medical therapies have led to a decrease in the use of parathyroidectomy (PTX). The surgical indications include parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels >800 pg/ml associated with hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia despite medical therapy. Other indications include calciphylaxis, fractures, bone pain or pruritis. Transplant recipients often show decreased PTH, calcium and phosphorus levels, but some will have persistent HPT. Evidence suggests that PTX may cause deterioration in renal graft function in the short-term calling into the question the indications for PTX in these patients. Pre-operative imaging is only occasionally helpful except in re-operative PTX. Operative approaches include subtotal PTX, total PTX with or without autotransplantation, and possible thymectomy. Each approach has its proponents, advantages and disadvantages which are discussed. Intraoperative PTH monitoring has a high positive predictive value of cure but a poor negative predictive value and therefore is of limited utility. Hypocalcemia is the most common complication requiring aggressive calcium administration. Benefits of surgery may include improved survival, bone mineral density and alleviation of symptoms.

                Author and article information

                Int J Endocrinol
                Int J Endocrinol
                International Journal of Endocrinology
                9 July 2018
                : 2018
                1Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Surgical Clinic, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
                2Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Surgical Clinic, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
                3Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                4Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, ASST Carlo Poma, Mantova, Italy
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Giovanni Conzo

                Copyright © 2018 Claudio Casella et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Clinical Study

                Endocrinology & Diabetes


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