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      Drug-induced stress responses and addiction risk and relapse

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      Neurobiology of Stress

      Elsevier

      Stress, Addiction, Drug, Cortisol, Autonomic nervous system, Cardiovascular

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          Abstract

          A number of studies have assessed the effects of psychoactive drugs on stress biology, the neuroadaptations resulting from chronic drug use on stress biology, and their effects on addiction risk and relapse. This review mainly covers human research on the acute effects of different drugs of abuse (i.e., nicotine, cannabis, psychostimulants, alcohol, and opioids) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. We review the literature on acute peripheral stress responses in naïve or light recreational users and binge/heavy or chronic drug users. We also discuss evidence of alterations in tonic levels, or tolerance, in the latter relative to the former and associated changes in the phasic stress responses. We discuss the impact of the stress system tolerance in heavy users on their response to drug- and stress-related cue responses and craving as compared to control subjects. A summary is provided of the effects of glucocorticoid responses and their adaptations on brain striatal and prefrontal cortices involved in the regulation of drug seeking and relapse risk. Finally, we summarize important considerations, including individual difference factors such as gender, co-occurring drug use, early trauma and adversity and drug use history and variation in methodologies, that may further influence the effects of these drugs on stress biology.

          Highlights

          • Selective review of the acute drug effects on stress biology, namely peripheral HPA and ANS, in healthy and substance abusing individuals.

          • The CNS responses that underlie robust stress responses to acute stress and drug use.

          • Alterations in cortico-limbic-striatal circuitry and in HPA and ANS activity that occur over repeated heavy use of drugs.

          • The link between adaptations in the peripheral and central stress response to compulsive drug motivation and relapse risk.

          • Relevant within- and between-individual factors that increase vulnerability or resilience to drug-induced changes on stress system responses.

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          Most cited references 203

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          Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction.

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            Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex

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              Dopamine release in response to a psychological stress in humans and its relationship to early life maternal care: a positron emission tomography study using [11C]raclopride.

              Mesolimbic dopamine is thought to play a role in the processing of rewards. However, animal studies also demonstrate dopamine release in response to aversive stressful stimuli. Also, in animal studies, disruptions of the mother-infant relationship have been shown to have long-lasting effects on the mesolimbic dopamine system and the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. We therefore investigated dopamine release in response to stress in human subjects, considering the relationship to early life parental care. We screened 120 healthy young college students for parental care in early life using a combination of telephone interviews and questionnaires. Five students from the top end and five students from the bottom end of the parental care distribution were then invited for a positron emission tomography study using [11C]raclopride and a psychosocial stress task. The psychosocial stressor caused a significant release of dopamine in the ventral striatum as indicated by a reduction in [11C]raclopride binding potential in the stress versus resting condition in subjects reporting low parental care. Moreover, the magnitude of the salivary cortisol response to stress was significantly correlated with the reduction in [11C]raclopride binding in the ventral striatum (r = 0.78), consistent with a facilitating effect of cortisol on dopamine neuron firing. These data suggest that aversive stressful events can be associated with mesolimbic dopamine release in humans, and that the method presented here may be useful to study the effects of early life events on neurobiological stress systems.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Neurobiol Stress
                Neurobiol Stress
                Neurobiology of Stress
                Elsevier
                2352-2895
                01 February 2019
                February 2019
                01 February 2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                Yale Stress Center, Yale School of Medicine, 2 Church St South Suite 209, New Haven, CT, 06519, USA
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Yale Stress Center, 2 Church Street South, Suite 209, New Haven, CT, 06519, USA. Stephanie.wemm@ 123456yale.edu
                Article
                S2352-2895(18)30075-4 100148
                10.1016/j.ynstr.2019.100148
                6430516
                © 2019 Published by Elsevier Inc.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Articles from the Special Issue on Stress and substance abuse throughout development; Edited by Roger Sorensen, Da-Yu Wu, Karen Sirocco, Cora lee Wetherington and Rita Valentino

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