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      Potential Predictors of Poor Prognosis among Severe COVID-19 Patients: A Single-Center Study

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          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background

          Timely detection of the progression of the highly contagious coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is of utmost importance for management and intervention for patients in intensive care (ICU).

          Aim

          This study aims to better understand this new infection and report the changes in the various laboratory tests identified in critically ill patients and associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.

          Methods

          This was a retrospective study that included 160 confirmed SARS-CoV-2-positive patients.

          Results

          Elevated serum ferritin, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and nonconjugated bilirubin levels were present in 139 (96%), 131 (96%), 107 (68%), 52 (34%), and 89 (70%) patients, respectively. Renal parameters were abnormal in a significant number of cases with elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in 93 (62%) and 102 (68%) cases, respectively. Hematological profiles revealed lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in 90 (57%), 103 (65%), 89 (62%), 105 (73%), 35 (24%), and 119 (83%) cases, respectively. The neutrophil count was found to increase in 71.3% of the cases. There was significantly higher mortality (83%) among patients older than 60 years ( p=0.001) and in female patients (75%) ( p=0.012). Patients with lung diseases had a poor outcome compared to patients with other comorbidities ( p=0.002). There was a significant association between elevated D-dimer levels and increased mortality ( p=0.003). Elevated levels of AST, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and bilirubin were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes.

          Conclusion

          Different parameters can be used to predict disease prognosis, especially the risk of poor prognosis. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression from the early stages will help in reducing mortality and unfavorable outcomes.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

            Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
                Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
                CJIDMM
                The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses et de la Microbiologie Médicale
                Hindawi
                1712-9532
                1918-1493
                2021
                10 April 2021
                : 2021
                Affiliations
                1Laboratory Medicine Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah 7607, Saudi Arabia
                2Public Health Department, Al Baha University, Al Bahah, Saudi Arabia
                3Biochemistry Department, Umm Al-Qura University, Al Abdeyah, PO Box 7607, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
                4Department of Laboratory Medicine and Blood Bank, Al-Noor Specialty Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
                5Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Marcos Christian Bautista

                Article
                10.1155/2021/6656092
                8040927
                Copyright © 2021 Mazen M. Ghaith et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Umm Al-Qura University
                Award ID: 17-MED-1-01–0062
                Categories
                Research Article

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