Mazen M. Ghaith 1 , Mohammad A. Albanghali , 2 , Abdullah F. Aldairi 1 , Mohammad S. Iqbal 1 , Riyad A. Almaimani 3 , Khalid AlQuthami 4 , Mansour H. Alqasmi 4 , Wail Almaimani 4 , Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi 3 , Ahmad Alghamdi 5 , Hussain A Almasmoum 1
10 April 2021
Timely detection of the progression of the highly contagious coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is of utmost importance for management and intervention for patients in intensive care (ICU).
This study aims to better understand this new infection and report the changes in the various laboratory tests identified in critically ill patients and associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.
Elevated serum ferritin, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and nonconjugated bilirubin levels were present in 139 (96%), 131 (96%), 107 (68%), 52 (34%), and 89 (70%) patients, respectively. Renal parameters were abnormal in a significant number of cases with elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in 93 (62%) and 102 (68%) cases, respectively. Hematological profiles revealed lower red blood cell count, hemoglobin, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in 90 (57%), 103 (65%), 89 (62%), 105 (73%), 35 (24%), and 119 (83%) cases, respectively. The neutrophil count was found to increase in 71.3% of the cases. There was significantly higher mortality (83%) among patients older than 60 years ( p=0.001) and in female patients (75%) ( p=0.012). Patients with lung diseases had a poor outcome compared to patients with other comorbidities ( p=0.002). There was a significant association between elevated D-dimer levels and increased mortality ( p=0.003). Elevated levels of AST, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and bilirubin were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes.