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      The Association between Serum Uric Acid and Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and the Effect of Their Interaction on Mortality in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

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          Background: Serum uric acid (SUA) has been revealed to be positively associated with the body composition parameters in hemodialysis patients, but few studies have investigated that in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between SUA and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and the effect of their interaction on mortality in PD patients. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective cohort study. Patients who underwent multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2016, and had data on SUA values were enrolled. All patients were followed up until December 31, 2019. Results: In total, 802 prevalent PD patients (57.9% male), with mean age of 46.2 ± 14.2 years were enrolled. The average SUA and ASM were 6.8 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 21.2 ± 4.9 kg. According to multiple linear regression models, SUA was positively associated with relative ASM in middle-aged and older PD patients (standardized coefficients [β] 0.117; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.027, 0.200; p = 0.010). Further sex-stratified analysis showed that the association existed only in males (β 0.161; 95% CI 0.017, 0.227; p = 0.023). Moreover, the presence of hyperuricemia was found to predict lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.514, 95% CI 0.272, 0.970; p = 0.040) only in patients with lower relative ASM. And, the adjusted HR of every 1 mg/dL elevated SUA level was 0.770 (95% CI 0.609, 0.972; p = 0.028) for all-cause mortality in the lower relative ASM subgroup. Conclusions: There exists a positive association between the SUA and ASM, and the ASM significantly affected the association between SUA and all-cause PD mortality.

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          A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation

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            Uric Acid and Oxidative Stress

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              Menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels in US women – The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

              Introduction Despite the substantial prevalence of gout in the ageing female population, female hormonal influence has not been comprehensively examined. We evaluated and quantified the potential independent association between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels in a nationally representative sample of women. Methods Using data from 7662 women aged 20 years and older in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), we examined the relation between menopause, postmenopausal hormone use and serum uric acid levels. We used multivariate linear regression to adjust for other risk factors for hyperuricaemia such as dietary factors, age, adiposity, alcohol use, renal function, hypertension and diuretic use. Results Menopause was associated with higher serum uric acid levels. After adjusting for covariates, serum uric acid levels among women with natural menopause and surgical menopause were greater than premenopausal women by 0.34 mg/dl (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.49) and 0.36 mg/dl (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.57), respectively. Current postmenopausal hormone use was associated with a lower serum uric acid level among postmenopausal women (multivariate difference, 0.24 mg/dl [95% CI, 0.11 to 0.36]). The serum uric acid levels increased with increasing age categories (crude difference between 20 to 29 years and 70 years and over = 1.03 mg/dl, p for trend < 0.001), but this increase was not present after adjusting for other covariates (p for trend = 0.66). Conclusions These findings from a nationally representative sample of US women indicate that menopause is independently associated with higher serum uric acid levels, whereas postmenopausal hormone use is associated with lower uric acid levels among postmenopausal women. The age-associated increase in serum uric acid levels in women may be explained by menopause and other age-related factors.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                13 November 2020
                : 45
                : 6
                : 969-981
                aDepartment of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
                bKey Laboratory of Nephrology, Committee of Health and Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                *Xiao Yang, Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China),
                510746 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:969–981
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 13
                Research Article


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