Abstract. Data on the content of lead in water, the soil, wheat, and hair of inhabitants of the western, central, and eastern areas of the Orenburg region are presented in this article. 525 samples of water, soil, and wheat and 420 samples of human hair were studied using atomic absorption and mass spectrometry with inductively-coupled plasma, respectively. It is estimated that in underground waters, the soil, and wheat of the eastern area the content of lead is the highest in comparison with the western and central areas of the region. In hair of inhabitants of the eastern area, the level of lead exceeded the respective values in the western and central areas by a factor of 2.2 (p < 0.001) and 1.5 (p < 0.001), respectively.