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      TOXICIDAD AGUDA DEL INSECTICIDA CIPERMETRINA (CYPERMON ® 20 EC) EN CUATRO ESPECIES DE ANUROS COLOMBIANOS Translated title: Acute Toxicity of the Insecticide Cypermethrin (CYPERMON ® 20 EC) on Four Species of Colombian Anurans

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN El insecticida cipermetrina (CY) es usado en la agricultura para el control de plagas; sin embargo, por su acción neurotóxica puede afectar organismos no blanco como los anuros. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la toxicidad (concentración letal media: CL50, y algunos efectos subletales: retrasos en el desarrollo, capacidad de natación y longitud total de las larvas) del insecticida CY (Cypermon® 20EC) expuesto durante 96 horas en embriones y renacuajos de cuatro especies de anuros bajo pruebas de laboratorio y microcosmos. Los embriones de Rhinella humboldti fueron los más sensibles en condiciones de laboratorio (CL50= 6,27 mg/L) y Boana xerophylla en microcosmos (CL50= 88,32 mg/ha), mientras que los de Engystomops pustulosus fueron los más resistentes (laboratorio: CL50= 1 1,80 mg/L; microcosmos: CL50= 1 12,37 mg/ha). Rhinella marina mostró una sensibilidad intermedia. En los renacuajos no fue posible calcular los valores CL50 debido a la alta mortalidad registrada en las concentraciones experimentales en laboratorio y microcosmos, las cuales fueron 40 y 122 veces menores al valor de aplicación del insecticida (500 mg/L y 1,52 mg/ha, respectivamente). Por otra parte, se encontró una reducción significante en la longitud total y la capacidad de natación de las larvas obtenidas de los embriones expuestos a la CY, pero no en el tiempo de desarrollo. En conclusión, la exposición a la cipermetrina provocó una letalidad alta en los renacuajos y efectos subletales en estadíos tempranos del desarrollo, por lo que a las concentraciones recomendadas de aplicación, este insecticida es tóxico para las especies de estudio.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACT The cypermethrin (CY) insecticide is used in agriculture for the control of pests; however, due to its neurological action can affect non-target organisms such as anurans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity (median lethal concentration: LC50, and some sublethal effects: developmental delays, swimming performance and total length of larvae) of the insecticide CY (Cypermon® 20EC) exposed during 96 hours to embryos and tadpoles of four anuran species under laboratory and microcosm tests. The embryos of Rhinella humboldti were the most sensitive in laboratory conditions (LC50= 6.27 mg/L) and Boana xerophylla in microcosms (LC50= 88.32 mg/ha), whereas Engystomops pustulosus (laboratory: LC50= 1 1.80 mg/L, microcosms: LC50= 1 12.37 mg/ha) was the most resistant species. Rhinella marina showed an intermediate sensitivity. It was not possible to calculate the tadpole LC50 values due to the high mortality recorded in the experimental concentrations, both in laboratory and microcosms, which were 40 and 122 times lower than the value suggested for the application of the insecticide in field (500 mg/L and 1.52 mg/ha, respectively). On the other hand, it was found a significant decreasing in the total length and swimming performance of the larvae obtained from the embryos exposed to CY, but not in the embryonic developmental time. In conclusion, the exposure to the cypermethrin produced a high tadpole lethality and sublethal effects on developing embryos; therefore, under the recommended concentrations of field exposition, this insecticide is toxic for the study species.

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          A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification

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            Pesticide Mixtures, Endocrine Disruption, and Amphibian Declines: Are We Underestimating the Impact?

            Amphibian populations are declining globally at an alarming rate. Pesticides are among a number of proposed causes for these declines. Although a sizable database examining effects of pesticides on amphibians exists, the vast majority of these studies focus on toxicological effects (lethality, external malformations, etc.) at relatively high doses (parts per million). Very few studies focus on effects such as endocrine disruption at low concentrations. Further, most studies examine exposures to single chemicals only. The present study examined nine pesticides (four herbicides, two fungicides, and three insecticides) used on cornfields in the midwestern United States. Effects of each pesticide alone (0.1 ppb) or in combination were examined. In addition, we also examined atrazine and S-metolachlor combined (0.1 or 10 ppb each) and the commercial formulation Bicep II Magnum, which contains both of these herbicides. These two pesticides were examined in combination because they are persistent throughout the year in the wild. We examined larval growth and development, sex differentiation, and immune function in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). In a follow-up study, we also examined the effects of the nine-compound mixture on plasma corticosterone levels in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Although some of the pesticides individually inhibited larval growth and development, the pesticide mixtures had much greater effects. Larval growth and development were retarded, but most significantly, pesticide mixtures negated or reversed the typically positive correlation between time to metamorphosis and size at metamorphosis observed in controls: exposed larvae that took longer to metamorphose were smaller than their counterparts that metamorphosed earlier. The nine-pesticide mixture also induced damage to the thymus, resulting in immunosuppression and contraction of flavobacterial meningitis. The study in X. laevis revealed that these adverse effects may be due to an increase in plasma levels of the stress hormone corticosterone. Although it cannot be determined whether all the pesticides in the mixture contribute to these adverse effects or whether some pesticides are effectors, some are enhancers, and some are neutral, the present study revealed that estimating ecological risk and the impact of pesticides on amphibians using studies that examine only single pesticides at high concentrations may lead to gross underestimations of the role of pesticides in amphibian declines.
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              Uso de insecticidas: contexto y consecuencias ecológicas

              Las restricciones de la sostenibilidad acerca del uso de insecticidas incluyen los efectos en la salud humana, los ecosistemas agrícolas (ejemplo, los insectos beneficiosos), el medio ambiente, en su sentido más amplio (por ejemplo, las especies que no son el objetivo, paisajes y comunidades) y la selección de los rasgos que confieren la resistencia a los insecticidas. Es posible encontrar ejemplos donde los insecticidas han tenido un impacto desastroso en todas aquellas variables y otros ejemplos donde los peligros que representaban han sido mitigados (por accidente o por diseño). En esta revisión examinamos lo que en la actualidad se puede concluir sobre el impacto de campo directo e indirecto y de largo plazo de los insecticidas en el medio ambiente. Proporcionamos ejemplos específicos, describimos los patrones actuales del uso de insecticidas, consideramos los contextos donde se usan los insecticidas y discutimos el papel de los reglamentos y leyes a fin de mitigar el riesgo. Discutimos cómo el uso de los insecticidas está cambiando como resultado de una mayor conciencia ambiental e inevitablemente, mientras discutimos las principales restricciones del uso de los insecticidas, también sugerimos por qué no se pueden descartar tan fácilmente.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                abc
                Acta Biológica Colombiana
                Acta biol.Colomb.
                Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología (Bogotá, Cundinamarca, Colombia )
                0120-548X
                December 2017
                : 22
                : 3
                : 340-347
                Affiliations
                Ibagué Tolima orgnameUniversidad del Tolima orgdiv1Departamento de Biología orgdiv2Grupo de Herpetología, Eco-Fisiología y Etologia Colombia
                Article
                S0120-548X2017000300340
                10.15446/abc.v22n3.62631

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 38, Pages: 8
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