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      Nanoparticles‐induced potential toxicity on human health: Applications, toxicity mechanisms, and evaluation models


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          Nanoparticles (NPs) have become one of the most popular objects of scientific study during the past decades. However, despite wealth of study reports, still there is a gap, particularly in health toxicology studies, underlying mechanisms, and related evaluation models to deeply understanding the NPs risk effects. In this review, we first present a comprehensive landscape of the applications of NPs on health, especially addressing the role of NPs in medical diagnosis, therapy. Then, the toxicity of NPs on health systems is introduced. We describe in detail the effects of NPs on various systems, including respiratory, nervous, endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems, and the carcinogenicity of NPs. Furthermore, we unravels the underlying mechanisms of NPs including ROS accumulation, mitochondrial damage, inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, DNA damage, cell cycle, and epigenetic regulation. In addition, the classical study models such as cell lines and mice and the emerging models such as 3D organoids used for evaluating the toxicity or scientific study are both introduced. Overall, this review presents a critical summary and evaluation of the state of understanding of NPs, giving readers more better understanding of the NPs toxicology to remedy key gaps in knowledge and techniques.


          A comprehensive landscape of the applications of NPs and their toxicity on health.

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          Most cited references398

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          Single Lgr5 stem cells build crypt-villus structures in vitro without a mesenchymal niche.

          The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in adult mammals. We have recently demonstrated the presence of about six cycling Lgr5(+) stem cells at the bottoms of small-intestinal crypts. Here we describe the establishment of long-term culture conditions under which single crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, while simultanously generating villus-like epithelial domains in which all differentiated cell types are present. Single sorted Lgr5(+) stem cells can also initiate these cryptvillus organoids. Tracing experiments indicate that the Lgr5(+) stem-cell hierarchy is maintained in organoids. We conclude that intestinal cryptvillus units are self-organizing structures, which can be built from a single stem cell in the absence of a non-epithelial cellular niche.
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            ROS as signalling molecules: mechanisms that generate specificity in ROS homeostasis.

            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be toxic but also function as signalling molecules. This biological paradox underlies mechanisms that are important for the integrity and fitness of living organisms and their ageing. The pathways that regulate ROS homeostasis are crucial for mitigating the toxicity of ROS and provide strong evidence about specificity in ROS signalling. By taking advantage of the chemistry of ROS, highly specific mechanisms have evolved that form the basis of oxidant scavenging and ROS signalling systems.
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              Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behaviour.

              Recent years have witnessed the rise of the gut microbiota as a major topic of research interest in biology. Studies are revealing how variations and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota influence normal physiology and contribute to diseases ranging from inflammation to obesity. Accumulating data now indicate that the gut microbiota also communicates with the CNS--possibly through neural, endocrine and immune pathways--and thereby influences brain function and behaviour. Studies in germ-free animals and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic bacteria or antibiotic drugs suggest a role for the gut microbiota in the regulation of anxiety, mood, cognition and pain. Thus, the emerging concept of a microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may be a tractable strategy for developing novel therapeutics for complex CNS disorders.

                Author and article information

                birm4th@163.com , zhoupk@bmi.ac.cn
                MedComm (2020)
                MedComm (2020)
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                14 July 2023
                August 2023
                : 4
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1002/mco2.v4.4 )
                : e327
                [ 1 ] Department of Occupational and Environmental Health Xiangya School of Public Health Central South University Changsha Hunan China
                [ 2 ] Department of Systems Biology and Engineering Institute of Automatic Control Silesian University of Technology Gliwice Poland
                [ 3 ] Biotechnology Centre, Silesian University of Technology Gliwice Poland
                [ 4 ] Beijing Key Laboratory for Radiobiology Department of Radiation Biology Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine Beijing China
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Ruixue Huang, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410078, China.

                Email: huangruixue@ 123456csu.edu.cn

                Ping‐Kun Zhou, Beijing Key Laboratory for Radiobiology, Department of Radiation Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, China.

                Email: zhoupk@ 123456bmi.ac.cn ; birm4th@ 123456163.com


                These authors contributed equally in this study.

                Author information
                © 2023 The Authors. MedComm published by Sichuan International Medical Exchange & Promotion Association (SCIMEA) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 04 June 2023
                : 02 March 2023
                : 09 June 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, Pages: 39, Words: 26157
                Funded by: the National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 82273581
                Award ID: 82073486
                Custom metadata
                August 2023
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.3.2 mode:remove_FC converted:15.07.2023

                evaluation technique,health application,mechanism of toxicity,nanoplastics


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