Nanoparticles (NPs) have become one of the most popular objects of scientific study during the past decades. However, despite wealth of study reports, still there is a gap, particularly in health toxicology studies, underlying mechanisms, and related evaluation models to deeply understanding the NPs risk effects. In this review, we first present a comprehensive landscape of the applications of NPs on health, especially addressing the role of NPs in medical diagnosis, therapy. Then, the toxicity of NPs on health systems is introduced. We describe in detail the effects of NPs on various systems, including respiratory, nervous, endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems, and the carcinogenicity of NPs. Furthermore, we unravels the underlying mechanisms of NPs including ROS accumulation, mitochondrial damage, inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, DNA damage, cell cycle, and epigenetic regulation. In addition, the classical study models such as cell lines and mice and the emerging models such as 3D organoids used for evaluating the toxicity or scientific study are both introduced. Overall, this review presents a critical summary and evaluation of the state of understanding of NPs, giving readers more better understanding of the NPs toxicology to remedy key gaps in knowledge and techniques.