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      Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease: A Case Report


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          Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), recently described, is a histologic pattern characterized by the presence of fibrin “balls” within alveolar spaces. The term undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is used to identify autoimmune systemic diseases that do not fulfill the criteria to be classified as a definitive connective tissue disease. The AFOP has never been reported in association with UCTD. The present reported case is a 39-year-old Caucasian, female with dry cough and progressive dyspnea. Eight months later, she was diagnosed with “organizing pneumonia” based on clinical history and radiologic images. She manifested Raynaud's Phenomenon, sicca syndrome, boot and gloves neuropathic pain, and previous hypothyroidism. Antinuclear antibody, rheumatoid factor, and specific autoantibodies were negative. Salivary gland biopsy and electroneuromyiography were normal. The capillaroscopy showed a “scleroderma” pattern with capillary deletion and ectasia. She experienced clinical and radiologic worsening. Despite being submitted to cyclophosphamide pulse, she developed hemorrhage and then died. Thoracotomy pulmonary specimen showed histological pattern of AFOP. This paper shows a rare association of AFOP with UCTD.

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          Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Subcommittee for scleroderma criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee.

          A multicenter, ongoing study of early-diagnosed cases of systemic sclerosis and comparison patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, and Raynaud's phenomenon was conducted in order to develop classification criteria for systemic sclerosis. Preliminary criteria are proposed namely, the finding of either the sole major criterion, i.e., proximal scleroderma, or two or more of the minor criteria, i.e., 1) sclerodactyly, 2) digital pitting scars of fingertips or loss of substance of the distal finger pad, and 3) bilateral basilar pulmonary fibrosis. When applied to the case and comparison patients included in this study, these proposed criteria had a 97% sensitivity for definite systemic sclerosis and 98% specificity.
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            Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia: a histological pattern of lung injury and possible variant of diffuse alveolar damage.

            The histologic patterns of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and eosinophilic pneumonia (EP) are well-recognized histologic patterns of lung injury associated with an acute or subacute clinical presentation. We have recognized acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) as a histologic pattern, which also occurs in this clinical setting but does not meet the classic histologic criteria for DAD, BOOP, or EP and may represent an underreported variant. To investigate the clinical significance of the AFOP histologic pattern and to explore its possible relationship to other disorders, including DAD and BOOP. Open lung biopsy specimens and autopsy specimens were selected from the consultation files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, which showed a dominant histologic pattern of intra-alveolar fibrin and organizing pneumonia. Varying amounts of organizing pneumonia, type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, edema, acute and chronic inflammation, and interstitial widening were seen. Cases with histologic patterns of classic DAD, BOOP, abscess formation, or eosinophilic pneumonia were excluded. To determine the clinical behavior of patients with this histologic finding, clinical and radiographic information and follow-up information were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier and chi(2) analysis. Seventeen patients (10 men, 7 women) with a mean age of 62 years (range, 33-78 years) had acute-onset symptoms of dyspnea (11), fever (6), cough (3), and hemoptysis (2). Associations believed to be clinically related to the lung disease included definitive or probable collagen vascular disease (3), amiodarone (1), sputum culture positive for Haemophilus influenza (1), lung culture positive for Acinetobacter sp. (1), lymphoma (1), hairspray (1), construction work (1), coal mining (1), and zoological work (1). Six patients had no identifiable origin or association. Follow-up revealed 2 clinical patterns of disease progression: a fulminate illness with rapid progression to death (n = 9; mean survival, 0.1 year) and a more subacute illness, with recovery (n = 8). Histologic analysis and initial symptoms did not correlate with eventual outcome, but 5 of the 5 patients who required mechanical ventilation died (P =.007). Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia is a histologic pattern associated with a clinical picture of acute lung injury that differs from the classic histologic patterns of DAD, BOOP, or EP. Similar to these patterns of acute lung injury, the AFOP pattern can occur in an idiopathic setting or with a spectrum of clinical associations. The overall mortality rate is similar to DAD and therefore may represent a histologic variant; however, AFOP appears to have 2 distinct patterns of disease progression and outcome. The need for mechanical ventilation was the only parameter that correlated with prognosis. None of the patients with a subacute clinical course required mechanical ventilation.
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              Amiodarone: review of pulmonary effects and toxicity.

              Amiodarone, a bi-iodinated benzofuran derivative, is, because of its high effectiveness, one of the most widely used antiarrhythmic agents. However, adverse effects, especially potentially fatal and non-reversible acute and chronic pulmonary toxicity, continue to be observed. This review provides an update of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of amiodarone pulmonary effects and toxicity. Lung adverse effects occur in approximately 5% of treated patients. The development of lung complications appears to be associated with older age, duration of treatment and cumulative dosage, high levels of its desethyl metabolite, history of cardiothoracic surgery and/or use of high oxygen mixtures, use of iodinated contrast media, and probably pre-existing lung disease as well as co-existing respiratory infections. Amiodarone-related adverse pulmonary effects may develop as early as from the first few days of treatment to several years later. The onset of pulmonary toxicity may be either insidious or rapidly progressive. Cough, new chest infiltrates in imaging studies and reduced lung diffusing capacity in the appropriate clinical setting of amiodarone use, after the meticulous exclusion of infection, malignancy and pulmonary oedema, are the cardinal clinical and laboratory elements for diagnosis. Pulmonary involvement falls into two categories of different grades of clinical significance: (i) the ubiquitous 'lipoid pneumonia', the so-called 'amiodarone effect', which is usually asymptomatic; and (ii) the more appropriately named 'amiodarone toxicity', which includes several distinct clinical entities related to the differing patterns of lung inflammatory reaction, such as eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic organizing pneumonia, acute fibrinous organizing pneumonia, nodules or mass-like lesions, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia-like and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Pleural/pericardial involvement may be observed. Three different and intertwined mechanisms of lung toxicity have been suggested: (i) a direct toxic effect; (ii) an immune-mediated mechanism; and (iii) the angiotensin enzyme system activation. Mortality ranges from 9% for those who develop chronic pneumonia to 50% for those who develop ARDS. Discontinuation of the drug, control of risk factors and, in the more severe cases, corticosteroids may be of therapeutic value. Supportive measures for supervening ARDS in the intensive care setting may become necessary.

                Author and article information

                Case Report Rheumatol
                Case Report Rheumatol
                Case Reports in Rheumatology
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                4 April 2012
                : 2012
                : 549298
                Department of Internal Medicine, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Marechal Campos Avenue 1355, 29040-715 Vitoria, ES, Brazil
                Author notes

                Academic Editors: T. C. Hsu and M. Salazar-Paramo

                Copyright © 2012 Valéria Valim et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 30 November 2011
                : 29 January 2012
                Case Report



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