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      Feasibility of sequential adjuvant chemotherapy with a 3-month oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine in patients with stage III and high-risk stage II colorectal cancer: JSWOG-C2 study

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          Six months of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant chemotherapy for completely resected stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Also, patients with stage II CRC who are considered to be at high risk of disease recurrence often receive the same adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. We prospectively investigated the extent and degree of neuropathy suffered by stage III and high-risk stage II resectable CRC patients who underwent sequential approach involving 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine.

          Patients and methods

          Patients with completely resected stage III and high-risk stage II CRC aged ≥20 years were eligible. Patients were treated with folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) for 3 months followed by capecitabine (2,500 mg/m 2 on days 1–14 every 3 weeks) for 3 months. Primary end points were frequency and the grade of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity as evaluated using the physician-based Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (CTCAE) grading and the patient-based scale, self-reported Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire.


          Ninety-one patients were enrolled and 86 patients assessed. Eighty-four percent of patients completed the planned oxaliplatin-based therapy for 3 months, and 63% of patients completed all treatments for the full 6 months. Overall incidences of grade 3 or 4 peripheral sensory or motor neuropathy according to the CTCAE were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. Regarding the peripheral sensory neuropathy, the proportion of Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (grade C–E) and CTCAE (grade 2–4) at months 1.5/3/6 were 11.3/22.1/29.4% and 5.3/4.4/11.3%, respectively (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.47).


          A sequential approach to adjuvant chemotherapy with 3 months of an oxaliplatin-based regimen followed by 3 months of capecitabine was tolerated by patients and associated with a low incidence of neuropathy.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) Guidelines 2014 for treatment of colorectal cancer

          Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death in Japan, where it accounts for the largest number of deaths from malignant neoplasms among women and the third largest number among men. Many new methods of treatment have been developed during recent decades. The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Guidelines 2014 for treatment of colorectal cancer (JSCCR Guidelines 2014) have been prepared as standard treatment strategies for colorectal cancer, to eliminate treatment disparities among institutions, to eliminate unnecessary treatment and insufficient treatment, and to deepen mutual understanding among health-care professionals and patients by making these guidelines available to the general public. These guidelines have been prepared as a result of consensuses reached by the JSCCR Guideline Committee on the basis of careful review of evidence retrieved by literature searches and taking into consideration the medical health insurance system and actual clinical practice in Japan. They can, therefore, be used as a guide for treating colorectal cancer in clinical practice. More specifically, they can be used as a guide to obtaining informed consent from patients and choosing the method of treatment for each patient. As a result of the discussions of the Guideline Committee, controversial issues were selected as clinical questions, and recommendations were made. Each recommendation is accompanied by a classification of the evidence and a classification of recommendation categories, on the basis of consensus reached by Guideline Committee members. Here we present the English version of the JSCCR Guidelines 2014.
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            Capecitabine plus oxaliplatin compared with fluorouracil and folinic acid as adjuvant therapy for stage III colon cancer.

            This multicenter, randomized trial compared capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) with bolus fluorouracil (FU) and folinic acid (FA) as adjuvant therapy for patients with stage III colon cancer. Patients who had undergone curative resection were randomly assigned to XELOX (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m(2) on day 1 plus capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1 to 14 every 3 weeks for 24 weeks) or a standard bolus FU/FA adjuvant regimen (Mayo Clinic for 24 weeks or Roswell Park for 32 weeks). The primary study end point was disease-free survival (DFS). The intention-to-treat population comprised 1,886 patients; 944 patients were randomly assigned to XELOX and 942 to FU/FA (Mayo Clinic, n = 664; Roswell Park, n = 278). After 57 months of follow-up for the primary analysis, 295 patients (31.3%) in the XELOX group had relapsed, developed a new primary colon cancer, or died compared with 353 patients (37.5%) in the FU/FA group (hazard ratio [HR] for DFS, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.93; P = .0045). The 3-year DFS rate was 70.9% with XELOX and 66.5% with FU/FA. The HR for overall survival (OS) for XELOX compared to FU/FA was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.05; P = .1486). The 5-year OS for XELOX and FU/FA were 77.6% and 74.2%, respectively. Follow-up is ongoing. Preplanned multivariate and subgroup analyses supported the robustness of these findings. The addition of oxaliplatin to capecitabine improves DFS in patients with stage III colon cancer. XELOX is an additional adjuvant treatment option for these patients.
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              Diagnosis, management, and evaluation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

              Peripheral neuropathy induced by cancer chemotherapy represents a large unmet need for patients due to the absence of treatment that can prevent or mitigate this common clinical problem. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) diagnosis and management is further compounded by the lack of reliable and standardized means to diagnose and monitor patients who are at risk for, or who are symptomatic from, this complication of treatment. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CIPN are not fully elucidated, but there is increasing evidence of damage or interference with tubulin function. The diagnosis of CIPN may present a diagnostic dilemma due to the large number of potential toxic etiologies and conditions, which may mimic some of the clinical features; the diagnosis must be approached with care in such patients. The incidence and severity of CIPN is commonly under-reported by physicians as compared with patients. The development of new and reliable methods for the assessment of CIPN as well as safe and effective treatments to prevent this complication of treatment would represent important medical advancements for cancer patients.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                23 November 2016
                : 10
                : 3827-3835
                [1 ]Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital
                [2 ]Department of Surgery
                [3 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Okayama Rosai Hospital, Okayama
                [4 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe
                [5 ]Department of Clinical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University Hospital, Kagawa
                [6 ]Department of Medicine, Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital, Okayama
                [7 ]Department of Surgery, Kagawa Prefectural Central Hospital, Takamatsu
                [8 ]Department of General Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama
                [9 ]Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Asa Hospital, Hiroshima
                [10 ]Department of Surgery, National Hospital Organization Higashihirosima Medical Center, Higashihiroshima
                [11 ]Department of Surgery, Kurashiki Medical Center
                [12 ]Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama
                [13 ]Department of Surgery, Hiroshima City Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Atsushi Tsuruta, Department of Digestive Surgery, Kawasaki Medical School Hospital, Matsushima 577, Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192, Japan, Tel +81 86 462 1111, Fax +81 86 462 1199, Email atsuatsu@ 123456apost.plala.or.jp

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2016 Tsuruta et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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