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      The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS)

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          Abstract

          The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) is a large-scale prospective observational study investigating the role of social, biological and environmental influences on pregnancy and child health and development in an urban setting in southern China. Pregnant women who reside in Guangzhou and who attend Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center (GWCMC) for antenatal care in early pregnancy (<20 weeks' gestation) are eligible for inclusion. Study recruitment commenced in February 2012, with an overall participation rate of 76.3%. Study recruitment will continue until December 2018 to achieve the target sample size of 30,000 mother-child pairs. At 30 April 2016, a total of 75,422 questionnaires have been collected, while 14,696 live births have occurred with planned follow-up of cohort children until age 18 years. During the same period a total of 1,053,000 biological samples have been collected from participants, including maternal, paternal and infant blood, cord blood, placenta, umbilical cord, and maternal and infant stool samples. The dataset has been enhanced by record linkage to routine health and administrative records. We plan future record linkage to school enrolment and national examination records.

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          Most cited references9

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          Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

          The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery. We used robust statistical methods including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) to analyse a database of data for 7065 site-years and estimate the number of maternal deaths from all causes in 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. We estimated the number of pregnancy-related deaths caused by HIV on the basis of a systematic review of the relative risk of dying during pregnancy for HIV-positive women compared with HIV-negative women. We also estimated the fraction of these deaths aggravated by pregnancy on the basis of a systematic review. To estimate the numbers of maternal deaths due to nine different causes, we identified 61 sources from a systematic review and 943 site-years of vital registration data. We also did a systematic review of reports about the timing of maternal death, identifying 142 sources to use in our analysis. We developed estimates for each country for 1990-2013 using Bayesian meta-regression. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all values. 292,982 (95% UI 261,017-327,792) maternal deaths occurred in 2013, compared with 376,034 (343,483-407,574) in 1990. The global annual rate of change in the MMR was -0·3% (-1·1 to 0·6) from 1990 to 2003, and -2·7% (-3·9 to -1·5) from 2003 to 2013, with evidence of continued acceleration. MMRs reduced consistently in south, east, and southeast Asia between 1990 and 2013, but maternal deaths increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa during the 1990s. 2070 (1290-2866) maternal deaths were related to HIV in 2013, 0·4% (0·2-0·6) of the global total. MMR was highest in the oldest age groups in both 1990 and 2013. In 2013, most deaths occurred intrapartum or postpartum. Causes varied by region and between 1990 and 2013. We recorded substantial variation in the MMR by country in 2013, from 956·8 (685·1-1262·8) in South Sudan to 2·4 (1·6-3·6) in Iceland. Global rates of change suggest that only 16 countries will achieve the MDG 5 target by 2015. Accelerated reductions since the Millennium Declaration in 2000 coincide with increased development assistance for maternal, newborn, and child health. Setting of targets and associated interventions for after 2015 will need careful consideration of regions that are making slow progress, such as west and central Africa. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Maternal dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus: a large prospective cohort study in China.

            Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24-27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95% CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95% CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction=0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
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              Developmental origins of health and disease: environmental exposures.

              The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) approach has evolved over the past 20 years, and the current hypothesis proposes that fetal adaptations to intrauterine and maternal conditions during development shape structure and function of organs. Here we present a review of some environmental exposures that may trigger fetal maladaptations in these processes, including three examples: exposures to tobacco smoke, antidepressant medication, and folic acid deficits in the food supply. We provide a selected review of current research on the effects of each of these exposures on fetal development and birth outcomes, and use the DOHaD approach to suggest how these exposures may alter long-term outcomes. In the interpretation of this literature, we review the evidence of gene-environment interactions based on evaluation of biological pathways and evidence that some exposures to the fetus may be moderated by maternal and fetal genotypes. Finally, we use the design of the National Children's Study (now in progress) to propose how the DOHaD approach could be used to address questions that have emerged in this area that are relevant to reproductive medicine and subsequent health outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Epidemiology
                Eur J Epidemiol
                Springer Nature
                0393-2990
                1573-7284
                April 2017
                March 20 2017
                April 2017
                : 32
                : 4
                : 337-346
                Article
                10.1007/s10654-017-0239-x
                28321694
                403a5a45-bdf9-4e7f-836b-f26b9e22319e
                © 2017

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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