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      Chemokine Receptors and Their Role in Vascular Biology

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      Journal of Vascular Research

      S. Karger AG

      Chemokine receptor, Vascular development, Endothelium, Smooth muscle cells

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          Abstract

          Chemokines play an important role in the process of leukocyte recruitment and activation at sites of inflammation. Until recently, the actions of chemokines and the expression of their receptors have only been described on different leukocyte populations. However, increasing evidence has suggested that non-haematopoietic cell types are capable of binding and responding to a number of chemokines. The functional expression of certain chemokine receptors has recently been described on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These findings provide new insight into the activities of chemokines and indicate that these molecules have a more widespread cellular target than first envisaged. Studies carried out to date indicate that chemokines and their respective receptors play an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis and angiostasis. They may also be involved in developmental and pathological processes such as organ vascularization, embryogenesis and arteriosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The lymphocyte chemoattractant SDF-1 is a ligand for LESTR/fusin and blocks HIV-1 entry.

          Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that activate and direct the migration of leukocytes. There are two subfamilies, the CXC and the CC chemokines. We recently found that the CXC-chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant. Chemokines act on responsive leukocyte subsets through G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors, which are also used by distinct strains of HIV-1 as cofactors for viral entry. Laboratory-adapted and some T-cell-line-tropic (T-tropic) primary viruses use the orphan chemokine receptor LESTR/fusin (also known as fusin), whereas macrophage-tropic primary HIV-1 isolates use CCR-5 and CCR-3 (refs 7-11), which are receptors for known CC chemokines. Testing of potential receptors demonstrated that SDF-1 signalled through, and hence 'adopted', the orphan receptor LESTR, which we therefore designate CXC-chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR-4). SDF-1 induced an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ and chemotaxis in CXCR-4-transfected cells. Because SDF-1 is a biological ligand for the HIV-1 entry cofactor LESTR, we tested whether it inhibited HIV-1. SDF-1 inhibited infection by T-tropic HIV-1 of HeLa-CD4 cells, CXCR-4 transfectants, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), but did not affect CCR-5-mediated infection by macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) and dual-tropic primary HIV-1.
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            The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract.

            Vascularization of organs generally occurs by remodelling of the preexisting vascular system during their differentiation and growth to enable them to perform their specific functions during development. The molecules required by early vascular systems, many of which are receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands, have been defined by analysis of mutant mice. As most of these mice die during early gestation before many of their organs have developed, the molecules responsible for vascularization during organogenesis have not been identified. The cell-surface receptor CXCR4 is a seven-transmembrane-spanning, G-protein-coupled receptor for the CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1 (for pre-B-cell growth-stimulating factor/stromal-cell-derived factor), which is responsible for B-cell lymphopoiesis, bone-marrow myelopoiesis and cardiac ventricular septum formation. CXCR4 also functions as a co-receptor for T-cell-line tropic human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1. Here we report that CXCR4 is expressed in developing vascular endothelial cells, and that mice lacking CXCR4 or PBSF/SDF-1 have defective formation of the large vessels supplying the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, mice lacking CXCR4 die in utero and are defective in vascular development, haematopoiesis and cardiogenesis, like mice lacking PBSF/SDF-1, indicating that CXCR4 is a primary physiological receptor for PBSF/SDF-1. We conclude that PBSF/SDF-1 and CXCR4 define a new signalling system for organ vascularization.
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              CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 is mediated by fusin/CXCR4.

              Several members of the chemokine receptor family have been shown to function in association with CD4 to permit HIV-1 entry and infection. However, the mechanism by which these molecules serve as CD4-associated cofactors is unclear. In the present report, we show that one member of this family, termed Fusin/ CXCR4, is able to function as an alternative receptor for some isolates of HIV-2 in the absence of CD4. This conclusion is supported by the finding that (1) CD4-independent infection by these viruses is inhibited by an anti-Fusin monoclonal antibody, (2) Fusin expression renders human and nonhuman CD4-negative cell lines sensitive to HIV-2-induced syncytium induction and/or infection, and (3) Fusin is selectively down-regulated from the cell surface following HIV-2 infection. The finding that one chemokine receptor can function as a primary viral receptor strongly suggests that the HIV envelope glycoprotein contains a binding site for these proteins and that differences in the affinity and/or the availability of this site can extend the host range of these viruses to include a number of CD4-negative cell types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2000
                February 2000
                07 March 2000
                : 37
                : 1
                : 1-7
                Affiliations
                Division of Child Health, Sheffield Children’s Hospital, University of Sheffield, UK
                Article
                25707 J Vasc Res 2000;37:1–7
                10.1159/000025707
                10720880
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 42, Pages: 7
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