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      Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

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          Abstract

          Doxorubicin (DOX) is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT) for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32) cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT). Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM) neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal, once in 5 days), as we observed significant impairment of episodic memory in ORT. Coadministration with RUT (50 mg/kg, per os) significantly prevented memory deficits in vivo without any confounding influence on locomotor activity. RUT also offered protection against DOX-induced myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, RUT may be a possible adjuvant therapeutic intervention to alleviate cognitive and other complications associated with DOX chemotherapy.

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          Most cited references 49

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            Quantifying cellular oxidative stress by dichlorofluorescein assay using microplate reader.

            Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in various degenerative diseases in aging. In an attempt to quantify OS in a cell model, we examined OS induced by incubating for 30 min with various free radical generators in PC12 cells by using the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) assay, modified for use by a fluorescent microplate reader. The nonfluorescent fluorescin derivatives (dichlorofluorescin, DCFH), after being oxidized by various oxidants, will become DCF and emit fluorescence. By quantifying the fluorescence, we were able to quantify the OS. Our results indicated that the fluorescence varied linearly with increasing concentrations (between 0.1 and 1 mM) of H2O2 and 2,2'-azobios(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH; a peroxyl radical generator). By contrast, the fluorescence varied as a nonlinear response to increasing concentrations of 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1; a peroxynitrite generator), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a nitric oxide generator), and dopamine. Dopamine had a biphasic effect; it decreased the DCF fluorescence, thus acting as an antioxidant, at concentrations <500 microM in cells, but acted as a pro-oxidant by increasing the fluorescence at 1 mM. While SNP was not a strong pro-oxidant, SIN-1 was the most potent pro-oxidant among those tested, inducing a 70 times increase of fluorescence at a concentration of 100 microM compared with control. Collectively, due to its indiscriminate nature to various free radicals, DCF can be very useful in quantifying overall OS in cells, especially when used in conjunction with a fluorescent microplate reader. This method is reliable and efficient for evaluating the potency of pro-oxidants and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of antioxidants against OS in cells.
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              Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver.

              Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver have been investigated. After perfusing the lung to remove contaminating blood, this organ was found to have an apparent concentration of glutathione (2mM) which is approx. 20% of that found in the liver. Both organs contain very low levels of glutathione disulfide. Neither phenobarbital nor methylcholanthrene had a significant effect on the levels of reduced glutathione in lung and liver. In addition, the activities of some glutathione-metabolizing enzymes--glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activity assayed with four different substrates--were observed to be 5-to 60-fold lower in lung tissue than in the liver.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                29 March 2017
                : 11
                : 1011-1026
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nandakumar Krishnadas, Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Madhav Nagar, Manipal 576104, Karnataka, India, Email mailnandakumar77@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-11-1011
                10.2147/DDDT.S103511
                5384734
                © 2017 Ramalingayya et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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