Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been reported to increase the risk of acute and chronic renal disease. However, the data are unclear in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis (AKI-D) who are often candidates for PPIs. To investigate this important issue, we identified 26,052 AKI-D patients from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database weaning from dialysis. During a mean follow-up period of 3.52 years, the PPI users had a higher incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than the PPI nonusers (P < 0.001). After propensity score matching and treating mortality as a competing risk factor, the PPI users had a higher risk of ESRD (subhazard ratio (sHR) 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-1.50) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, sHR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.37-1.71) compared with the PPI nonusers with AKI-D survivors. In conclusion, the use of PPIs was associated with a higher risk of ESRD and MACE, compared with the PPI nonusers in AKI-D patients who weaned from dialysis.