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      State of the art for gastric signet ring cell carcinoma: from classification, prognosis, and genomic characteristics to specified treatments

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          Abstract

          Gastric cancer (GC) is responsible for 9% of cancer deaths worldwide. Over 950,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, and about 90% of them are in advanced stage, requiring chemotherapy. In Europe there has been research based on pre- and postoperative chemotherapy treatment, using 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, cisplatin, capecitabine, and docetaxel. Chemotherapy significantly impairs the quality of life of patients; however, the final effects are not always satisfactory. There is scientific evidence that gastric mucus tumors and signet ring cell carcinomas have a pattern of specific signatures, that distinguish them from other gastric cancer subtypes, and may be associated with a poor response to systematic treatment. Signet ring cell carcinoma is less chemosensitive than others, and the increase in the percentage of signet ring cells correlates with resistance to chemotherapy. Perioperative chemotherapy in advanced signet ring cell carcinomas is an independent factor of poor prognosis and survival, which is explained by the toxicity of neoadjuvant treatment. Therefore, curative surgical resection enhanced by standardized lymphadenectomy remains the recommended gold standard in GC therapy. According to presented studies, early detection and aggressive treatments for this subtype of GC is a reasonable approach. This review paper is mostly addressed to physicians who are interested in updating to the state of the art concerning different subtypes of gastric carcinoma.

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          Most cited references55

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          Cell adhesion and signalling by cadherins and Ig-CAMs in cancer.

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              Pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer: diagnostic relevance and prognostic value.

              Several pathohistological classification systems exist for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the pathohistological characteristics in gastric cancer and patient characteristics, disease specific criteria and overall outcome. It is still controversial as to which classification system imparts the most reliable information, and therefore, the choice of system may vary in clinical routine. In addition to the most common classification systems, such as the Laurén and the World Health Organization (WHO) classifications, other authors have tried to characterize and classify gastric cancer based on the microscopic morphology and in reference to the clinical outcome of the patients. In more than 50 years of systematic classification of the pathohistological characteristics of gastric cancer, there is no sole classification system that is consistently used worldwide in diagnostics and research. However, several national guidelines for the treatment of gastric cancer refer to the Laurén or the WHO classifications regarding therapeutic decision-making, which underlines the importance of a reliable classification system for gastric cancer. The latest results from gastric cancer studies indicate that it might be useful to integrate DNA- and RNA-based features of gastric cancer into the classification systems to establish prognostic relevance. This article reviews the diagnostic relevance and the prognostic value of different pathohistological classification systems in gastric cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Manag Res
                Cancer Manag Res
                Cancer Management and Research
                Cancer Management and Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1179-1322
                2019
                15 March 2019
                : 11
                : 2151-2161
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland, r.sitarz@ 123456umlub.pl
                [2 ]Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
                [3 ]Department of Surgery, St. John’s Cancer Center, Lublin, Poland, r.sitarz@ 123456umlub.pl
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Robert Sitarz, Department of Human Anatomy/Department of Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego Street 4, Lublin 20-090, Poland, Tel +48 81 448 6020, Fax +48 81 448 6021, Email r.sitarz@ 123456umlub.pl
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                cmar-11-2151
                10.2147/CMAR.S188622
                6421895
                407293b0-9afb-49cc-8cd3-b3f4fc55ea2c
                © 2019 Machlowska et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                History
                Categories
                Review

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                gastric cancer,signet ring cells,cdh1,tp53,advanced stage,gastrectomy,adjuvant chemotherapy

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