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The Adverse Impact of Maternal Obesity on Intrapartum and Perinatal Outcomes

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ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology

International Scholarly Research Network

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      Abstract

      Background. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the UK have repeatedly highlighted increased maternal morbidity and mortality associated with maternal obesity. Objective. To determine the impact of increased body mass index (BMI) on intrapartum outcomes. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case-control analysis of intrapartum outcomes of the study group (100 women), with a BMI above 40 kg/m 2 (class III Obesity) at booking and a control group (100 women) with a booking BMI between 20 and 25 kg/m 2 was performed. Results. A statistically significant increase in delivery by caesarean section (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.26–4.29), minor and major postpartum haemorrhage (OR 5.93, 95% CI 2.34–11.98, OR 16.11, 95% CI 2.08–125.09, resp.), perineal trauma (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.44–4.69), and fetal macrosomia (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.25–7.79) was noted in the study group. Babies also had an increased risk of having a lower APGAR scores in the study group as compared to the control group (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.07–8.94). Conclusion. Women with a BMI > 40 kg/m 2 experience increased incidence of intrapartum complications and hence, input of skilled birth attendants during labour is essential to improve intrapartum outcomes.

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      Most cited references 18

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      Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London.

      To examine the maternal and foetal risks of adverse pregnancy outcome in relation to maternal obesity, expressed as body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) in a large unselected geographical population. Retrospective analysis of data from a validated maternity database system which includes all but one of the maternity units in the North West Thames Region. A comparison of pregnancy outcomes was made on the basis of maternal BMI at booking. A total of 287,213 completed singleton pregnancies were studied including 176,923 (61.6%) normal weight (BMI 20--24.9), 79 014 (27.5%) moderately obese (BMI 25--29.9) and 31,276 (10.9%) very obese (BMI> or =30) women. Ante-natal complications, intervention in labour, maternal morbidity and neonatal outcome were examined and data presented as raw frequencies and adjusted odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals following logistic regression analysis to account for confounding variables. Compared to women with normal BMI, the following outcomes were significantly more common in obese pregnant women (odds ratio (99% confidence interval) for BMI 25--30 and BMI> or =30 respectively): gestational diabetes mellitus (1.68 (1.53--1.84), 3.6 (3.25--3.98)); proteinuric pre-eclampsia (1.44 (1.28--1.62), 2.14 (1.85--2.47)); induction of labour (2.14 (1.85--2.47), 1.70 (1.64--1.76)); delivery by emergency caesarian section (1.30 (1.25--1.34), 1.83 (1.74--1.93)); postpartum haemorrhage (1.16 (1.12--1.21), 1.39 (1.32--1.46)); genital tract infection (1.24 (1.09--1.41), 1.30 (1.07--1.56)); urinary tract infection (1.17 (1.04-1.33), 1.39 (1.18--1.63)); wound infection (1.27 (1.09--1.48), 2.24 (1.91--2.64)); birthweight above the 90th centile (1.57 (1.50--1.64), 2.36 (2.23--2.50)), and intrauterine death (1.10 (0.94--1.28), 1.40 (1.14--1.71)). However, delivery before 32 weeks' gestation (0.73 (0.65--0.82), 0.81 (0.69--0.95)) and breastfeeding at discharge (0.86 (0.84--0.88), 0.58 (0.56--0.60)) were significantly less likely in the overweight groups. In all cases, increasing maternal BMI was associated with increased magnitude of risk. Maternal obesity carries significant risks for the mother and foetus. The risk increases with the degree of obesity and persists after accounting for other confounding demographic factors. The basis of many of the complications is likely to be related to the altered metabolic state associated with morbid obesity.
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        Obesity and over Weight

        (2011)
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          The macrosomic fetus: a challenge in current obstetrics.

          There has been a rise in the prevalence of large newborns over a few decades in many parts of the world. There is ample evidence that fetal macrosomia is associated with increased risk of complications both for the mother and the newborn. In current obstetrics, the macrosomic fetus represents a frequent clinical challenge. Evidence is emerging that being born macrosomic is also associated with future health risks. To provide a review of causes and risks, prevention, prediction and clinical management of suspected large fetus/fetal macrosomia, primarily aimed at clinical obstetricians. Medline and EMBASE were searched between 1980 and 2007 by combining either 'fetal macrosomia' or 'large for gestational age' with other relevant terms. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched for the term 'fetal macrosomia'. Although the causes of high birthweight include both genetic and environmental factors, the rapid increase in the prevalence of large newborns has environmental causes. The evidence is extensive that maternal overweight and associated metabolic changes, including type 2 and gestational diabetes, play a central role. There is a paucity of studies of the effect of intervention before and/or during pregnancy on the risk of having an 'overweight newborn'. It appears rational, however, that preventive measures should primarily be implemented before pregnancy and should include guidance about nutrition and physical activity in order to reduce the prevalence of overweight. In pregnancy, limited weight gain, especially in obese women, seems to reduce the risk of macrosomia, as do good control of plasma glucose among those with diabetes. Prediction of fetal macrosomia remains an inaccurate task even with modern ultrasound equipment. There is little evidence that routine elective delivery (induction or caesarean section) for the mere reason of suspected macrosomia should be employed in a general population. Vaginal delivery of a macrosomic fetus requires considered attention by an experienced obstetrician and preparedness for operative delivery, shoulder dystocia and newborn asphyxia.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Women's Directorate, St George's Healthcare NHS Trust, Blackshaw Road, London SW17 0QT, UK
            Author notes

            Academic Editors: C. J. Petry and J. G. Schenker

            Journal
            ISRN Obstet Gynecol
            ISRN Obstet Gynecol
            ISRN.OBGYN
            ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology
            International Scholarly Research Network
            2090-4436
            2090-4444
            2012
            20 December 2012
            : 2012
            23316381
            3539326
            10.5402/2012/939762
            Copyright © 2012 D. Vinayagam and E. Chandraharan.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Clinical Study

            Obstetrics & Gynecology

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