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      Endoscopic tri-modal imaging for surveillance in ulcerative colitis: randomised comparison of high-resolution endoscopy and autofluorescence imaging for neoplasia detection; and evaluation of narrow-band imaging for classification of lesions

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          Endoscopic tri-modal imaging (ETMI) incorporates white light endoscopy (WLE), autofluorescence imaging (AFI) and narrow-band imaging (NBI).


          To assess the value of ETMI for the detection and classification of neoplasia in patients with longstanding ulcerative colitis.


          Randomised comparative trial of tandem colonoscopies.


          Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands.

          Patients and methods:

          Fifty patients with ulcerative colitis underwent surveillance colonoscopy with ETMI. Each colonic segment was inspected twice, once with AFI and once with WLE, in random order. All detected lesions were inspected by NBI for Kudo pit pattern analysis and additional random biopsies were taken.

          Main outcome measures:

          Neoplasia miss-rates of AFI and WLE, and accuracy of the Kudo classification by NBI.


          Among patients assigned to inspection with AFI first (n = 25), 10 neoplastic lesions were primarily detected. Subsequent WLE detected no additional neoplasia. Among patients examined with WLE first (n = 25), three neoplastic lesions were detected; subsequent inspection with AFI added three neoplastic lesions. Neoplasia miss-rates for AFI and WLE were 0% and 50% (p = 0.036). The Kudo classification by NBI had a sensitivity and specificity of 75% and 81%; however, all neoplasia was coloured purple on AFI (sensitivity 100%). No additional patients with neoplasia were detected by random biopsies.


          Autofluorescence imaging improves the detection of neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis and decreases the yield of random biopsies. Pit pattern analysis by NBI has a moderate accuracy for the prediction of histology, whereas AFI colour appears valuable in excluding the presence of neoplasia.

          Trial registration number:


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          Most cited references 48

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          The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis.

          Controversy surrounds the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Many studies have investigated this risk and reported widely varying rates. A literature search using Medline with the explosion of references identified 194 studies. Of these, 116 met our inclusion criteria from which the number of patients and cancers detected could be extracted. Overall pooled estimates, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), of cancer prevalence and incidence were obtained using a random effects model on either the log odds or log incidence scale, as appropriate. The overall prevalence of CRC in any UC patient, based on 116 studies, was estimated to be 3.7% (95% CI 3.2-4.2%). Of the 116 studies, 41 reported colitis duration. From these the overall incidence rate was 3/1000 person years duration (pyd), (95% CI 2/1000 to 4/1000). The overall incidence rate for any child was 6/1000 pyd (95% CI 3/1000 to 13/1000). Of the 41 studies, 19 reported results stratified into 10 year intervals of disease duration. For the first 10 years the incidence rate was 2/1000 pyd (95% CI 1/1000 to 2/1000), for the second decade the incidence rate was estimated to be 7/1000 pyd (95% CI 4/1000 to 12/1000), and in the third decade the incidence rate was 12/1000 pyd (95% CI 7/1000 to 19/1000). These incidence rates corresponded to cumulative probabilities of 2% by 10 years, 8% by 20 years, and 18% by 30 years. The worldwide cancer incidence rates varied geographically, being 5/1000 pyd in the USA, 4/1000 pyd in the UK, and 2/1000 pyd in Scandinavia and other countries. Over time the cancer risk has increased since 1955 but this finding was not significant (p=0.8). Using new meta-analysis techniques we determined the risk of CRC in UC by decade of disease and defined the risk in pancolitics and children. We found a non-significant increase in risk over time and estimated how risk varies with geography.
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            The Vienna classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia.

             R Schlemper (2000)
            Use of the conventional Western and Japanese classification systems of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia results in large differences among pathologists in the diagnosis of oesophageal, gastric, and colorectal neoplastic lesions. To develop common worldwide terminology for gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia. Thirty one pathologists from 12 countries reviewed 35 gastric, 20 colorectal, and 21 oesophageal biopsy and resection specimens. The extent of diagnostic agreement between those with Western and Japanese viewpoints was assessed by kappa statistics. The pathologists met in Vienna to discuss the results and to develop a new consensus terminology. The large differences between the conventional Western and Japanese diagnoses were confirmed (percentage of specimens for which there was agreement and kappa values: 37% and 0.16 for gastric; 45% and 0.27 for colorectal; and 14% and 0.01 for oesophageal lesions). There was much better agreement among pathologists (71% and 0.55 for gastric; 65% and 0.47 for colorectal; and 62% and 0.31 for oesophageal lesions) when the original assessments of the specimens were regrouped into the categories of the proposed Vienna classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplasia: (1) negative for neoplasia/dysplasia, (2) indefinite for neoplasia/dysplasia, (3) non-invasive low grade neoplasia (low grade adenoma/dysplasia), (4) non-invasive high grade neoplasia (high grade adenoma/dysplasia, non-invasive carcinoma and suspicion of invasive carcinoma), and (5) invasive neoplasia (intramucosal carcinoma, submucosal carcinoma or beyond). The differences between Western and Japanese pathologists in the diagnostic classification of gastrointestinal epithelial neoplastic lesions can be resolved largely by adopting the proposed terminology, which is based on cytological and architectural severity and invasion status.
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              Cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis refractory to steroid therapy.

              There has been no new effective drug therapy for patients with severe ulcerative colitis since corticosteroids were introduced almost 40 years ago. In an uncontrolled study, 80 percent of 32 patients with active ulcerative colitis refractory to corticosteroid therapy had a response to cyclosporine therapy. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in which cyclosporine (4 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) or placebo was administered by continuous intravenous infusion to 20 patients with severe ulcerative colitis whose condition had not improved after at least 7 days of intravenous corticosteroid therapy. A response to therapy was defined as an improvement in a numerical symptom score (0 indicated no symptoms, and 21 severe symptoms) leading to discharge from the hospital and treatment with oral medications. Failure to respond to therapy resulted in colectomy, but some patients in the placebo group who had no response and no urgent need for surgery were subsequently treated with cyclosporine. Nine of 11 patients (82 percent) treated with cyclosporine had a response within a mean of seven days, as compared with 0 of 9 patients who received placebo (P < 0.001). The mean clinical-activity score fell from 13 to 6 in the cyclosporine group, as compared with a decrease from 14 to 13 in the placebo group. All five patients in the placebo group who later received cyclosporine therapy had a response. Intravenous cyclosporine therapy is rapidly effective for patients with severe corticosteroid-resistant ulcerative colitis.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                August 2008
                26 March 2008
                26 March 2008
                : 57
                : 8
                : 1083-1089
                [1 ]Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands
                [2 ]Pathology, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands
                [3 ]Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Netherlands
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Dr Evelien Dekker, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; e.dekker@
                © van den Broek et al 2008

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Ulcerative Colitis

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology


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