1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Involvement of Luteinizing Hormone in Alzheimer Disease Development in Elderly Women

      1 , 2 , 3

      Reproductive Sciences

      SAGE Publications

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 165

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Alzheimer disease in the US population: prevalence estimates using the 2000 census.

          Current and future estimates of Alzheimer disease (AD) are essential for public health planning. To provide prevalence estimates of AD for the US population from 2000 through 2050. Alzheimer disease incidence estimates from a population-based, biracial, urban study, using a stratified random sampling design, were converted to prevalence estimates and applied to US Census Bureau estimates of US population growth. A geographically defined community of 3 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Ill, applied to the US population. Alzheimer disease incidence was measured in 3838 persons free of AD at baseline; 835 persons were evaluated for disease incidence. Main Outcome Measure Current and future estimates of prevalence of clinically diagnosed AD in the US population. In 2000, there were 4.5 million persons with AD in the US population. By 2050, this number will increase by almost 3-fold, to 13.2 million. Owing to the rapid growth of the oldest age groups of the US population, the number who are 85 years and older will more than quadruple to 8.0 million. The number who are 75 to 84 years old will double to 4.8 million, while the number who are 65 to 74 years old will remain fairly constant at 0.3 to 0.5 million. The number of persons with AD in the US population will continue to increase unless new discoveries facilitate prevention of the disease.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Effect of oestrogen during menopause on risk and age at onset of Alzheimer's disease.

            Oestrogen use by postmenopausal women has many health benefits, but findings on the effect of oestrogen in Alzheimer's disease are conflicting. Oestrogen promotes the growth and survival of cholinergic neurons and could decrease cerebral amyloid deposition, both of which may delay the onset or prevent Alzheimer's disease. To investigate whether use of oestrogen during the postmenopausal period affects the risk of Alzheimer's disease, we studied 1124 elderly women who were initially free of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, and who were taking part in a longitudinal study of ageing and health in a New York City community. Relative risks and age-at-onset distributions were calculated from simple and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Standard annual clinical assessments and criterion-based diagnoses were used in follow-up (range 1-5 years). Overall, 156 (12.5%) women reported taking oestrogen after onset of menopause. The age at onset of Alzheimer's disease was significantly later in women who had taken oestrogen than in those who did not and the relative risk of the disease was significantly reduced (9/156 [5.8%] oestrogen users vs 158/968 [16.3%] nonusers; 0.40 [95% Cl 0.22-0.85], p < 0.01), even after adjustment for differences in education, ethnic origin, and apolipoprotein-E genotype. Women who had used oestrogen for longer than 1 year had a greater reduction in risk; none of 23 women who were taking oestrogen at study enrolment has developed Alzheimer's disease. Oestrogen use in postmenopausal women may delay the onset and decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Prospective studies are needed to establish the dose and duration of oestrogen required to provide this benefit and to assess its safety in elderly postmenopausal women.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer's disease.

              Risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In post-menopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion of neuron viability and reduction of beta-amyloid accumulation, a critical factor in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent findings suggest neural responsiveness to estrogen can diminish with age, reducing neuroprotective actions of estrogen and, consequently, potentially limiting the utility of hormone therapies in aged women. In addition, estrogen neuroprotective actions are also modulated by progestogens. Specifically, continuous progestogen exposure is associated with inhibition of estrogen actions whereas cyclic delivery of progestogens may enhance neural benefits of estrogen. In recent years, emerging literature has begun to elucidate a parallel relationship of sex steroid hormones and AD risk in men. Normal age-related testosterone loss in men is associated with increased risk to several diseases including AD. Like estrogen, testosterone has been established as an endogenous neuroprotective factor that not only increases neuronal resilience against AD-related insults, but also reduces beta-amyloid accumulation. Androgen neuroprotective effects are mediated both directly by activation of androgen pathways and indirectly by aromatization to estradiol and initiation of protective estrogen signaling mechanisms. The successful use of hormone therapies in aging men and women to delay, prevent, and or treat AD will require additional research to optimize key parameters of hormone therapy and may benefit from the continuing development of selective estrogen and androgen receptor modulators.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Reproductive Sciences
                Reprod Sci
                SAGE Publications
                1933-7191
                1933-7205
                February 14 2017
                March 2017
                July 20 2016
                March 2017
                : 24
                : 3
                : 355-368
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Reproduction and Development Program, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
                [2 ]Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Reproduction and Development Program, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
                [3 ]Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproduction and Development Program, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
                Article
                10.1177/1933719116658705
                © 2017

                Comments

                Comment on this article

                Similar content 2,328

                Cited by 4

                Most referenced authors 1,633