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      The Impact of Parental Styles on the Development of Psychological Complaints


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          The main aim of the present study was to test Rogers’ theory, stating that parental styles characterized by unconditional positive regard (UPR) promote healthier adults than parental styles characterized by conditional regard (CR). For both caregivers CR was found to be associated with significantly higher scores on psychological complaints than UPR (on nearly all SCL-90 scales and the SCL-total score), even when controlling for gender. Although lack of emotional warmth by the father and harsh discipline by the mother were significant predictors of SCL-90-Total (indicating state neuroticism) it should be noted that both variables only explained a small amount of the total variance. Empirical evidence was found for Rogers’ theory. Others factors than merely emotional warmth and discipline play a role in the etiology of state neuroticism. For future research it is therefore recommended to include other factors, such as daily worries, temperament, and alexithymia

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          Most cited references24

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          Genetic and Environmental Influences on Personality: A Study of Twins Reared Together Using the Self- and Peer Report NEO-FFI Scales

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            Diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Symptom Check List (SCL-90-R) as screening instruments.

            The treatment of mental disorders in Germany is mainly done by primary care physicians. Several studies have shown that primary care physicians have difficulty in diagnosing these disorders. Recently, several self-report questionnaires have been developed that can be used as screening instruments to identify psychopathology in primary care settings and in the community. The aim of this paper was to investigate the screening properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Symptom Check-List (SCL-90-R) in a primary care setting in Germany. A randomly selected sample (n = 408) of adult outpatients from 18 primary care offices in Düsseldorf was screened using the German versions of the GHQ-12 and the SCL-90-R. A structured diagnostic interview (SCID) and an impairment rating (IS) were used as a gold standard to which both questionnaires were compared. Test performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. We found no difference in the performance of the general scores of the two questionnaires. Both instruments were able to detect cases. Complex scoring methods offered no advantages over simpler ones for the GHQ-12. ROC analysis confirmed that the SCL-90-R subscales "anxiety" and "depression" showed acceptable concurrent validity for the diagnostic groups anxiety and depression (according to DSM-III-R). GHQ-12 and SCL-90-R appeared to be useful tools for identifying mental disorders in primary care practice and research. The use of GHQ-12 or SCL-90-R, employed as a first step, supplemented by a second-stage interview, may enhance the detection rate of mental disorder in primary care settings.
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              Toddler and childhood temperament: expanded content, stronger genetic evidence, new evidence for the importance of environment.

              Using samples of twins and singletons totaling 715 individuals, the authors document heritable influences on various temperamental dimensions during the toddler and preschooler age ranges, which have been somewhat understudied relative to infants and older adolescents. In contrast to instruments on which prior literature is based, the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire and the Children's Behavior Questionnaire offer assessment of positive affectivity (separately from negative affectivity) and of emotional regulation. Positive affect reveals substantial shared environmental influence, and emotion regulation reveals additive genetic influence. Evidence for genetic variance in temperament is strengthened because intraclass correlations from many of these questionnaire scales show no evidence of "too-low" dizygotic correlations that imply contrast effects. Suggestive evidence is offered that psychometric characteristics of the questionnaires can affect biometric inferences.

                Author and article information

                Eur J Psychol
                Europe's Journal of Psychology
                Eur. J. Psychol.
                27 February 2015
                : 11
                : 1
                : 155-168
                [a ]Psychologist, Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [b ]Department of Methodology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
                [c ]Department of Clinical, Health and Neuropsychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
                [4]Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
                Author notes
                [* ]Av. Vereador José Diniz, 3457 cj. 709 - 04604 - 006 - Campo Belo - São Paulo - SP - Brazil. danielarlopes@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright @

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 03 July 2014
                : 23 January 2015
                Research Reports

                parental styles,Rogers,neuroticism,psychological complaints,conditional regard
                parental styles, Rogers, neuroticism, psychological complaints, conditional regard


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